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Key equations

  • bond order = ( number of bonding electron ) ( number of antibonding electrons ) 2

Chemistry end of chapter exercises

Sketch the distribution of electron density in the bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals formed from two s orbitals and from two p orbitals.

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How are the following similar, and how do they differ?

(a) σ molecular orbitals and π molecular orbitals

(b) ψ for an atomic orbital and ψ for a molecular orbital

(c) bonding orbitals and antibonding orbitals

(a) Similarities: Both are bonding orbitals that can contain a maximum of two electrons. Differences: σ orbitals are end-to-end combinations of atomic orbitals, whereas π orbitals are formed by side-by-side overlap of orbitals. (b) Similarities: Both are quantum-mechanical constructs that represent the probability of finding the electron about the atom or the molecule. Differences: ψ for an atomic orbital describes the behavior of only one electron at a time based on the atom. For a molecule, ψ represents a mathematical combination of atomic orbitals. (c) Similarities: Both are orbitals that can contain two electrons. Differences: Bonding orbitals result in holding two or more atoms together. Antibonding orbitals have the effect of destabilizing any bonding that has occurred.

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If molecular orbitals are created by combining five atomic orbitals from atom A and five atomic orbitals from atom B combine, how many molecular orbitals will result?

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Can a molecule with an odd number of electrons ever be diamagnetic? Explain why or why not.

An odd number of electrons can never be paired, regardless of the arrangement of the molecular orbitals. It will always be paramagnetic.

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Can a molecule with an even number of electrons ever be paramagnetic? Explain why or why not.

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Why are bonding molecular orbitals lower in energy than the parent atomic orbitals?

Bonding orbitals have electron density in close proximity to more than one nucleus. The interaction between the bonding positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons stabilizes the system.

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Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration:

( σ 2 s ) 2 ( σ 2 s * ) 2 ( σ 2 p x ) 2 ( π 2 p y , π 2 p z ) 4 ( π 2 p y * , π 2 p z * ) 3

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Explain why an electron in the bonding molecular orbital in the H 2 molecule has a lower energy than an electron in the 1 s atomic orbital of either of the separated hydrogen atoms.

The pairing of the two bonding electrons lowers the energy of the system relative to the energy of the nonbonded electrons.

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Predict the valence electron molecular orbital configurations for the following, and state whether they will be stable or unstable ions.

(a) Na 2 2+

(b) Mg 2 2+

(c) Al 2 2+

(d) Si 2 2+

(e) P 2 2+

(f) S 2 2+

(g) F 2 2+

(h) Ar 2 2+

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Determine the bond order of each member of the following groups, and determine which member of each group is predicted by the molecular orbital model to have the strongest bond.

(a) H 2 , H 2 + , H 2

(b) O 2 , O 2 2+ , O 2 2−

(c) Li 2 , Be 2 + , Be 2

(d) F 2 , F 2 + , F 2

(e) N 2 , N 2 + , N 2

(a) H 2 bond order = 1, H 2 + bond order = 0.5, H 2 bond order = 0.5, strongest bond is H 2 ; (b) O 2 bond order = 2, O 2 2+ bond order = 3; O 2 2− bond order = 1, strongest bond is O 2 2+ ; (c) Li 2 bond order = 1, Be 2 + bond order = 0.5, Be 2 bond order = 0, strongest bond is Li 2 ;(d) F 2 bond order = 1, F 2 + bond order = 1.5, F 2 bond order = 0.5, strongest bond is F 2 + ; (e) N 2 bond order = 3, N 2 + bond order = 2.5, N 2 bond order = 2.5, strongest bond is N 2

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For the first ionization energy for an N 2 molecule, what molecular orbital is the electron removed from?

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Compare the atomic and molecular orbital diagrams to identify the member of each of the following pairs that has the highest first ionization energy (the most tightly bound electron) in the gas phase:

(a) H and H 2

(b) N and N 2

(c) O and O 2

(d) C and C 2

(e) B and B 2

(a) H 2 ; (b) N 2 ; (c) O; (d) C 2 ; (e) B 2

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Which of the period 2 homonuclear diatomic molecules are predicted to be paramagnetic?

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A friend tells you that the 2 s orbital for fluorine starts off at a much lower energy than the 2 s orbital for lithium, so the resulting σ 2 s molecular orbital in F 2 is more stable than in Li 2 . Do you agree?

Yes, fluorine is a smaller atom than Li, so atoms in the 2 s orbital are closer to the nucleus and more stable.

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True or false: Boron contains 2 s 2 2 p 1 valence electrons, so only one p orbital is needed to form molecular orbitals.

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What charge would be needed on F 2 to generate an ion with a bond order of 2?


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Predict whether the MO diagram for S 2 would show s-p mixing or not.

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Explain why N 2 2+ is diamagnetic, while O 2 4+ , which has the same number of valence electrons, is paramagnetic.

N 2 has s-p mixing, so the π orbitals are the last filled in N 2 2+ . O 2 does not have s-p mixing, so the σ p orbital fills before the π orbitals.

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Using the MO diagrams, predict the bond order for the stronger bond in each pair:

(a) B 2 or B 2 +

(b) F 2 or F 2 +

(c) O 2 or O 2 2+

(d) C 2 + or C 2

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how do you find theWhat are the wavelengths and energies per photon of two lines
caroline Reply
The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
razzyd Reply
A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
ifunanya Reply
4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
Kyndall Reply
Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
Gabe Reply
Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF
Tarun Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
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