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bond order = ( number of bonding electrons ) ( number of antibonding electrons ) 2

The order of a covalent bond is a guide to its strength; a bond between two given atoms becomes stronger as the bond order increases ( [link] ). If the distribution of electrons in the molecular orbitals between two atoms is such that the resulting bond would have a bond order of zero, a stable bond does not form. We next look at some specific examples of MO diagrams and bond orders.

Bonding in diatomic molecules

A dihydrogen molecule (H 2 ) forms from two hydrogen atoms. When the atomic orbitals of the two atoms combine, the electrons occupy the molecular orbital of lowest energy, the σ 1 s bonding orbital. A dihydrogen molecule, H 2 , readily forms because the energy of a H 2 molecule is lower than that of two H atoms. The σ 1 s orbital that contains both electrons is lower in energy than either of the two 1 s atomic orbitals.

A molecular orbital can hold two electrons, so both electrons in the H 2 molecule are in the σ 1 s bonding orbital; the electron configuration is ( σ 1 s ) 2 . We represent this configuration by a molecular orbital energy diagram ( [link] ) in which a single upward arrow indicates one electron in an orbital, and two (upward and downward) arrows indicate two electrons of opposite spin.

A diagram is shown that has an upward-facing vertical arrow running along the left side labeled “E.” At the bottom center of the diagram is a horizontal line labeled, “sigma subscript 1 s,” that has two vertical half arrows drawn on it, one facing up and one facing down. This line is connected to the right and left by upward-facing, dotted lines to two more horizontal lines, each labeled, “1 s,” and each with one vertical half-arrow facing up drawn on it. These two lines are connected by upward-facing dotted lines to another line in the center of the diagram, but farther up from the first, and labeled, “sigma subscript 1 s superscript asterisk.” The left and right sides of the diagram have headers that read, ”Atomic orbitals,” while the center header reads, “Molecular orbitals.” The bottom left and right are labeled “H” while the center is labeled “H subscript 2.”
The molecular orbital energy diagram predicts that H 2 will be a stable molecule with lower energy than the separated atoms.

A dihydrogen molecule contains two bonding electrons and no antibonding electrons so we have

bond order in H 2 = ( 2 0 ) 2 = 1

Because the bond order for the H–H bond is equal to 1, the bond is a single bond.

A helium atom has two electrons, both of which are in its 1 s orbital. Two helium atoms do not combine to form a dihelium molecule, He 2 , with four electrons, because the stabilizing effect of the two electrons in the lower-energy bonding orbital would be offset by the destabilizing effect of the two electrons in the higher-energy antibonding molecular orbital. We would write the hypothetical electron configuration of He 2 as ( σ 1 s ) 2 ( σ 1 s * ) 2 as in [link] . The net energy change would be zero, so there is no driving force for helium atoms to form the diatomic molecule. In fact, helium exists as discrete atoms rather than as diatomic molecules. The bond order in a hypothetical dihelium molecule would be zero.

bond order in He 2 = ( 2 2 ) 2 = 0

A bond order of zero indicates that no bond is formed between two atoms.

A diagram is shown that has an upward-facing vertical arrow running along the left side labeled, “E.” At the bottom center of the diagram is a horizontal line labeled, “sigma subscript 1 s,” that has two vertical half arrows drawn on it, one facing up and one facing down. This line is connected to the right and left by upward-facing, dotted lines to two more horizontal lines, each labeled, “1 s,” and each with one vertical half-arrow facing up and one facing down drawn on it. These two lines are connected by upward-facing dotted lines to another line in the center of the diagram, but farther up from the first, and labeled, “sigma subscript 1 s superscript asterisk.” This line has one upward-facing and one downward-facing vertical arrow drawn on it. The left and right sides of the diagram have headers that read, “Atomic orbitals,” while the center header reads, “Molecular orbitals.” The bottom left and right are labeled, “H e,” while the center is labeled, “H e subscript 2.”
The molecular orbital energy diagram predicts that He 2 will not be a stable molecule, since it has equal numbers of bonding and antibonding electrons.

The diatomic molecules of the second period

Eight possible homonuclear diatomic molecules might be formed by the atoms of the second period of the periodic table: Li 2 , Be 2 , B 2 , C 2 , N 2 , O 2 , F 2 , and Ne 2 . However, we can predict that the Be 2 molecule and the Ne 2 molecule would not be stable. We can see this by a consideration of the molecular electron configurations ( [link] ).

We predict valence molecular orbital electron configurations just as we predict electron configurations of atoms. Valence electrons are assigned to valence molecular orbitals with the lowest possible energies. Consistent with Hund’s rule, whenever there are two or more degenerate molecular orbitals, electrons fill each orbital of that type singly before any pairing of electrons takes place.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
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Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
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Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
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Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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research.net
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sciencedirect big data base
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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characteristics of micro business
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Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
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for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
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in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
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A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
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4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
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Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
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Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF
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Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
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