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Working rules : We shall be using following definitions/results for solving problems in this module :

  • y = log a x , where a > 0, a 1, x > 0, y R
  • y = log a x x = a y
  • If log a x y , then x a y , if a > 1
  • If log a x y , then x a y , if a < 1

Domain of different logarithmic functions

Problem : Find the domain of the function given by (Be aware that "x" appears as base of given logrithmic function):

f x = log x 2

Solution : By definition of logarithmic function, we know that base of logarithmic function is a positive number excluding x =1.

x > 0, x 1

Hence, domain of the given function is :

Domain of the function

Thick line represents domain of the given function.

Domain = 0, { 1 }


Domain = 0,1 { 1, }

Problem : Find the domain of the function given by :

f x = log 10 x 2 5 x + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 9

Solution : The argument (input to the function) of logarithmic function is a rational function. We need to find values of “x” such that the argument of the function evaluates to a positive number. Hence,

x 2 5 x + 6 x 2 + 5 x + 9 > 0

In this case, we can not apply sign scheme for the rational function as a whole. Reason is that the quadratic equation in the denominator has no real roots and as such can not be factorized in linear factors. We see that discreminant,"D", of the quadratic equation in the denominator, is negative :

D = b 2 4 a c = 5 2 4 X 1 X 9 = 25 36 = - 11

The quadratic expression in denominator is positive for all value of x as coefficient of squared term is positive. Clearly, sign of rational function is same as that of quadratic expression in the numerator. The coefficient of squared term of the numerator “ x 2 ”, is positive for all values of “x”. The quadratic expression in the numerator evaluates to positive for intervals beyond root values. The roots of the corresponding equal equation is :

x 2 2 x 3 x + 6 = 0 x x 2 3 x 2 = 0 x 2 x 3 = 0

Domain of the function

Thick line represents domain of the given function.

x < 2 or x > 3

Domain = ( - , 2 ) ( 3, )

Problem : Find the domain of the function given by :

f x = log 10 6 x x 2 8

Solution : The function is a square root of a logarithmic function. On the other hand argument of logarithmic function is a rational function. In order to find the domain of the given function, we first determine what values of “x” are valid for logarithmic function. Then, we apply the condition that expression within square root should be non-negative number. Domain of given function is intersection of intervals of x obtained for each of these conditions. Now, we know that argument (input to function) of logarithmic function is a positive number. This implies that we need to find the interval of “x” for which,

6 x x 2 8 > 0

6 x x 2 > 0

In above step, we should emphasize here that we multiply “8” and “0” and retain the inequality sign because 8>0. Now, we multiply the inequality by “-1”. Therefore, inequality sign is reversed.

x 2 6 x < 0

Here, roots of corresponding quadratic equation “ x 2 6 x ” is x = 0, 6. It means that middle interval between “0 and 6” is negative as coefficient of “ x 2 ” is positive i.e. 6>0. Hence, interval satisfying the inequality is :

Domain of the function

Thick line represents domain of the given function.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
What is power set
Satyabrata Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply
Period of sin^6 3x+ cos^6 3x
Sneha Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Functions. OpenStax CNX. Sep 23, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10464/1.64
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