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Segregation coefficients for common impurity and dopant elements in silicon.
Element k 0 Element k 0
aluminum 0.002 iron 8 x 10 -6
boron 0.8 oxygen 0.25
carbon 0.07 phosphorus 0.35
copper 4 x 10 -6 antimony 0.023

Gallium arsenide

In contrast to electronic grade silicon (EGS), whose use is a minor fraction of the global production of elemental silicon, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is produced exclusively for use in the semiconductor industry. However, arsenic and its compounds have significant commercial applications. The main use of elemental arsenic is in alloys of Pb, and to a lesser extent Cu, while arsenic compounds are widely used in pesticides and wood preservatives and the production of bottle glass. Thus, the electronics industry represents a minor user of arsenic. In contrast, although gallium has minor uses as a high-temperature liquid seal, manometric fluids and heat transfer media, and for low temperature solders, its main use is in semiconductor technology.

Isolation and purification of gallium metal

At 19 ppm gallium (L. Gallia , France) is about as abundant as nitrogen, lithium and lead; it is twice as abundant as boron (9 ppm), but is more difficult to extract due to the lack of any major gallium-containing ore. Gallium always occurs in association either with zinc or germanium, its neighbors in the periodic table, or with aluminum in the same group. Thus, the highest concentrations (0.1-1%) are in the rare mineral germanite (a complex sulfide of Zn, Cu, Ge, and As), while concentrations in sphalerite (ZnS), diaspore [AlO(OH)], bauxite, or coal, are a hundred-fold less. Industrially, gallium was originally recovered from the flue dust emitted during sulfide roasting or coal burning (up to 1.5% Ga), however, it is now obtained as side product of vast aluminum industry and in particular from the Bayer process for obtaining alumina from bauxite.

The Bayer process involves dissolution of bauxite, AlO x OH 3-2x , in aqueous NaOH, separation of insoluble impurities, partial precipitation of the trihydrate, Al(OH) 3 , and calcination at 1,200 °C. During processing the alkaline solution is gradually enriched in gallium from an initial weight ratio Ga/Al of about 1/5000 to about 1/300. Electrolysis of these extracts with a Hg cathode results in further concentration, and the solution of sodium gallate thus formed is then electrolyzed with a stainless steel cathode to give Ga metal. Since bauxite contains 0.003-0.01% gallium, complete recovery would yield some 500-1000 tons per annum, however present consumption is only 0.1% of this about 10 tons per annum.

A typical analysis of the 98-99% pure gallium obtained as a side product from the Bayer process is shown in [link] . This material is further purified to 99.99% by chemical treatment with acids and O 2 at high temperatures followed by crystallization. This chemical process results in the reduction of the majority of metal impurities at the ppm level, see [link] . Purification to seven nines 99.9999% is possible through zone refining, however, since the equilibrium distribution coefficient of the residual impurities k 0 ≈ 1, multiple passes are required, typically>500. The low melting point of gallium ensures that contamination from the container wall (which is significant in silicon zone refining) is minimized. In order to facilitate the multiple zone refining in a suitable time, a simple modification of zone refining is employed shown in [link] . The gallium is contained in a plastic tube wrapped around a rotating cylinder that is half immersed in a cooling bath. A heater is positioned above the gallium plastic coil. Thus, establishing a series of molten zones that pass upon rotation of the drum by one helical segment per revolution. In this manner, 500 passes may be made in relatively short time periods. The typical impurity levels of gallium zone refined in this manner are given in [link] .

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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