<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Granular polysilicon deposition

Both the chlorosilane (Seimens) and silane processes result in the formation of rods of EGS. However, there has been increased interest in the formation of granular polycrystalline EGS. This process was developed in 1980’s, and relies on the decomposition of SiH 4 in a fluidized-bed deposition reactor to produce free-flowing granular polysilicon.

Tiny silicon particles are fluidized in a SiH 4 /H 2 flow, and act as seed crystal onto which polysilicon deposits to form free-flowing spherical particles. The size distribution of the particles thus formed is over the range from 0.1 to 1.5 mm in diameter with an average particle size of 0.7 mm. The fluidized-bed seed particles are originally made by grinding EGS in a ball (or hammer) mill and leaching the product with acid, hydrogen peroxide, and water. This process is time-consuming and costly, and tended to introduce undesirable impurities from the metal grinders. In a new method, large EGS particles are fired at each other by a high-speed stream of inert gas and the collision breaks them down into particles of suitable size for a fluidized bed. This process has the main advantage that it introduces no foreign materials and requires no leaching or other post purification.

The fluidized-bed reactors are much more efficient than traditional rod reactors as a consequence of the greater surface area available during CVD growth of silicon. It has been suggested that fluidized-bed reactors require 1 / 5 to 1 / 10 the energy, and half the capital cost of the traditional process. The quality of fluidized-bed polysilicon has proven to be equivalent to polysilicon produced by the conventional methods. Moreover, granular EGS in a free-flowing form, and with high bulk density, enables crystal growers to obtain the high, reproducible production yields out of each crystal growth run. For example, in the Czochralski crystal growth process, crucibles can be quickly and easily filled to uniform loading with granular EGS, which typically exceed those of randomly stacked polysilicon chunks produced by the Siemens silane process.

Zone refining

The technique of zone refining is used to purify solid materials and is commonly employed in metallurgical refining. In the case of silicon may be used to obtain the desired ultimate purity of EGS, which has already been purified by chemical processes. Zone refining was invented by Pfann, and makes use of the fact that the equilibrium solubility of any impurity (e.g., Al) is different in the solid and liquid phases of a material (e.g., Si). For the dilute solutions, as is observed in EGS silicon, an equilibrium segregation coefficient (k 0 ) is defined by k 0 = C s /C l , where C s and C l are the equilibrium concentrations of the impurity in the solid and liquid near the interface, respectively.

If k 0 is less than 1 then the impurities are left in the melt as the molten zone is moved along the material. In a practical sense a molten zone is established in a solid rod. The zone is then moved along the rod from left to right. If k<1 then the frozen part left on the trailing edge of the moving molten zone will be purer than the material that melts in on the right-side leading edge of the moving molten zone. Consequently the solid to the left of the molten zone is purer than the solid on the right. At the completion of the first pass the impurities become concentrated to the right of the solid sample. Repetition of the process allows for purification to exceptionally high levels. [link] . lists the equilibrium segregation coefficients for common impurity and dopant elements in silicon; it should be noted that they are all less than 1.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Chemistry of electronic materials' conversation and receive update notifications?