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Schematic of submerged-electrode arc furnace for the production of metallurgical-grade silicon (MGS).

The overall reduction reaction of SiO 2 is expressed in [link] , however, the reaction sequence is more complex than this overall reaction implies, and involves the formation of SiC and SiO intermediates. The initial reaction between molten SiO 2 and C ( [link] ) takes place in the arc between adjacent electrodes, where the local temperature can exceed 2000 °C. The SiO and CO thus generated flow to cooler zones in the furnace where SiC is formed ( [link] ), or higher in the bed where they reform SiO 2 and C ( [link] ). The SiC reacts with molten SiO 2 ( [link] ) producing the desired silicon along with SiO and CO. The molten silicon formed is drawn-off from the furnace and solidified.

The as-produced MGS is approximately 98-99% pure, with the major impurities being aluminum and iron ( [link] ), however, obtaining low levels of boron impurities is of particular importance, because it is difficult to remove and serves as a dopant for silicon. The drawbacks of the above process are that it is energy and raw material intensive. It is estimated that the production of one metric ton (1,000 kg) of MGS requires 2500-2700 kg quartzite, 600 kg charcoal, 600-700 kg coal or coke, 300-500 kg wood chips, and 500,000 kWh of electric power. Currently, approximately 500,000 metric tons of MGS are produced per year, worldwide. Most of the production (ca. 70%) is used for metallurgical applications (e.g., aluminum-silicon alloys are commonly used for automotive engine blocks) from whence its name is derived. Applications in a variety of chemical products such as silicone resins account for about 30%, and only 1% or less of the total production of MGS is used in the manufacturing of high-purity EGS for the electronics industry. The current worldwide consumption of EGS is approximately 5 x 10 6 kg per year.

Electronic-grade silicon (egs)

Electronic-grade silicon (EGS) is a polycrystalline material of exceptionally high purity and is the raw material for the growth of single-crystal silicon. EGS is one of the purest materials commonly available, see [link] . The formation of EGS from MGS is accomplished through chemical purification processes. The basic concept of which involves the conversion of MGS to a volatile silicon compound, which is purified by distillation, and subsequently decomposed to re-form elemental silicon of higher purity (i.e., EGS). Irrespective of the purification route employed, the first step is physical pulverization of MGS followed by its conversion to the volatile silicon compounds.

A number of compounds, such as monosilane (SiH 4 ), dichlorosilane (SiH 2 Cl 2 ), trichlorosilane (SiHCl 3 ), and silicon tetrachloride (SiCl 4 ), have been considered as chemical intermediates. Among these, SiHCl 3 has been used predominantly as the intermediate compound for subsequent EGS formation, although SiH 4 is used to a lesser extent. Silicon tetrachloride and its lower chlorinated derivatives are used for the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of Si and SiO 2 . The boiling points of silane and its chlorinated products ( [link] ) are such that they are conveniently separated from each other by fractional distillation.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry of electronic materials. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10719/1.9
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