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Ekonomiese en bestuurswetenskappe

Graad 7

Ekonomiese beleidsrigtings (1910 - 1994)

Module 12

Oorsig van suid-afrika se ekonomie (1948 – 1994)

Gemeenskapsapartheid

a) Skeiding van woongebiede

In die vroeë 80’s het baie swart mense in stede gewerk en in swart woongebiede (townships) gewoon, maar hul is nie toegelaat om eiendom daar te besit nie. Hul moes “passe” dra. Die regering het nie genoeg huise in die swart woongebiede gebou nie en toestande was dikwels baie sleg. Die swart woongebiede was oorbewoon en hostelle is gebou om die probleem te probeer aanspreek. Hostelle het egter nie voorsiening gemaak vir gesinne nie. Dit was onwettig vir ‘n swart vrou om saam met haar man te woon as sy nie ‘n werk gehad het nie. Gesinne en families is so opgebreek en daar was baie maatskaplike probleme. Baie arm vroue en kinders het in die tuislande gebly en gewag op geld wat miskien van die stede aangestuur sou word.

b) Apartheid-onderwys

Die gehalte van onderwys van swart skole het oor die dekades baie versleg, veral toe daar besluit is om die sendingskole te sluit. Die menslike hulpbronne is nie onder die vorige regerings by alle rassegroepe ontwikkel nie en baie volwassenes het nooit hul volle potensiaal verwesenlik nie. Hulle kennis en vaardighede is nooit ontwikkel nie en daarom kon hul geen bydrae lewer tot die ontwikkeling van die land se ekonomie nie.

In 1952 het slegs 3% van die swart kinders verder as die laerskool gevorder. In 1937 was daar slegs vier hoërskole vir kleurlinge en net 182 leerders het matriek geslaag.

c) Ekonomiese agteruitgang van die “tuislande”

Die tuislande was ‘n baie duur instelling vir die regering van Suid-Afrika en daar is jaarliks miljoene rande aan hierdie “apartheidsinstelling” bestee. Wit entrepreneurs is finansieel aangemoedig om industrieë op die grense van die tuislande te vestig en hierdeur werk te skep vir die inwoners van die tuislande. Sodoende het die Suid-Afrikaanse regering probeer om arbeiders te ontmoedig om in die stede van Suid-Afrika te werk. Hierdie pogings het egter misluk. Daar was min entrepreneurs wat dit sou waag om fabrieke so ver van die ontwikkelde nywerhede te bou. Al die uitgawes van die Suid-Afrikaanse regering het niks bygedra tot die voorspoed van die inwoners van die tuislande nie.

d) Apartheid raak ekonomies uitgedien

Na baie jare van onbillike wetgewing ongelyke behandeling is daar baie finansiële druk op die huidige ekonomie om die balans te herstel. Daar moet veral op die volgende areas gefokus word:

  • gelyke geleenthede in die onderwys;
  • voorsiening van basiese dienste soos water en elektrisiteit aan almal;
  • bou van genoegsame huise, ‘n veilige woonomgewing vir almal en die ondersteuning van selfbouprojekte;
  • bou van goeie paaie in en na swart woongebiede.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ekonomiese en bestuurswetenskappe graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11024/1.1
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