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Ekonomiese en bestuurswetenskappe

Graad 7

Ekonomiese beleidsrigtings (1910 - 1994)

Module 12

Oorsig van suid-afrika se ekonomie (1948 – 1994)

Gemeenskapsapartheid

a) Skeiding van woongebiede

In die vroeë 80’s het baie swart mense in stede gewerk en in swart woongebiede (townships) gewoon, maar hul is nie toegelaat om eiendom daar te besit nie. Hul moes “passe” dra. Die regering het nie genoeg huise in die swart woongebiede gebou nie en toestande was dikwels baie sleg. Die swart woongebiede was oorbewoon en hostelle is gebou om die probleem te probeer aanspreek. Hostelle het egter nie voorsiening gemaak vir gesinne nie. Dit was onwettig vir ‘n swart vrou om saam met haar man te woon as sy nie ‘n werk gehad het nie. Gesinne en families is so opgebreek en daar was baie maatskaplike probleme. Baie arm vroue en kinders het in die tuislande gebly en gewag op geld wat miskien van die stede aangestuur sou word.

b) Apartheid-onderwys

Die gehalte van onderwys van swart skole het oor die dekades baie versleg, veral toe daar besluit is om die sendingskole te sluit. Die menslike hulpbronne is nie onder die vorige regerings by alle rassegroepe ontwikkel nie en baie volwassenes het nooit hul volle potensiaal verwesenlik nie. Hulle kennis en vaardighede is nooit ontwikkel nie en daarom kon hul geen bydrae lewer tot die ontwikkeling van die land se ekonomie nie.

In 1952 het slegs 3% van die swart kinders verder as die laerskool gevorder. In 1937 was daar slegs vier hoërskole vir kleurlinge en net 182 leerders het matriek geslaag.

c) Ekonomiese agteruitgang van die “tuislande”

Die tuislande was ‘n baie duur instelling vir die regering van Suid-Afrika en daar is jaarliks miljoene rande aan hierdie “apartheidsinstelling” bestee. Wit entrepreneurs is finansieel aangemoedig om industrieë op die grense van die tuislande te vestig en hierdeur werk te skep vir die inwoners van die tuislande. Sodoende het die Suid-Afrikaanse regering probeer om arbeiders te ontmoedig om in die stede van Suid-Afrika te werk. Hierdie pogings het egter misluk. Daar was min entrepreneurs wat dit sou waag om fabrieke so ver van die ontwikkelde nywerhede te bou. Al die uitgawes van die Suid-Afrikaanse regering het niks bygedra tot die voorspoed van die inwoners van die tuislande nie.

d) Apartheid raak ekonomies uitgedien

Na baie jare van onbillike wetgewing ongelyke behandeling is daar baie finansiële druk op die huidige ekonomie om die balans te herstel. Daar moet veral op die volgende areas gefokus word:

  • gelyke geleenthede in die onderwys;
  • voorsiening van basiese dienste soos water en elektrisiteit aan almal;
  • bou van genoegsame huise, ‘n veilige woonomgewing vir almal en die ondersteuning van selfbouprojekte;
  • bou van goeie paaie in en na swart woongebiede.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, Ekonomiese en bestuurswetenskappe graad 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11024/1.1
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