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Group one of the periodic table contains L i superscript plus sign in period 2, N a superscript plus sign in period 3, K superscript plus sign in period 4, R b superscript plus sign in period 5, C s superscript plus sign in period 6, and F r superscript plus sign in period 7. Group two contains B e superscript 2 plus sign in period 2, M g superscript 2 plus sign in period 3, C a superscript 2 plus sign in period 4, S r superscript 2 plus sign in period 5, B a superscript 2 plus sign in period 6, and R a superscript 2 plus sign in period 7. Group six contains C r superscript 3 plus sign and C r superscript 6 plus sign in period 4. Group seven contains M n superscript 2 plus sign in period 4. Group eight contains F e superscript 2 plus sign and F e superscript 3 plus sign in period 4. Group nine contains C o superscript 2 plus sign in period 4. Group ten contains N i superscript 2 plus sign in period 4, and P t superscript 2 plus sign in period 6. Group 11 contains C U superscript plus sign and C U superscript 2 plus sign in period 4, A g superscript plus sign in period 5, and A u superscript plus sign and A u superscript 3 plus sign in period 6. Group 12 contains Z n superscript 2 plus sign in period 4, C d superscript 2 plus sign in period 5, and H g subscript 2 superscript 2 plus sign and H g superscript 2 plus sign in period 6. Group 13 contains A l superscript 3 plus sign in period 3. Group 14 contains C superscript 4 negative sign in period 2. Group 15 contains N superscript 3 negative sign in period 2, P superscript 3 negative sign in period 3, and A s superscript 3 negative sign in period 4. Group 16 contains O superscript 2 negative sign in period 2, S superscript 2 negative sign in period 3, S e superscript 2 negative sign in period 4 and T e superscript 2 negative sign in period 5. Group 17 contains F superscript negative sign in period 2, C l superscript negative sign in period 3, B r superscript negative sign in period 4, I superscript negative sign in period 5, and A t superscript negative sign in period 6. Group 18 contains H e in period 1, N e in period 2, A r in period 3, K r in period 4, X e in period 5 and R n in period 6.
Some elements exhibit a regular pattern of ionic charge when they form ions.

Composition of ions

An ion found in some compounds used as antiperspirants contains 13 protons and 10 electrons. What is its symbol?

Solution

Because the number of protons remains unchanged when an atom forms an ion, the atomic number of the element must be 13. Knowing this lets us use the periodic table to identify the element as Al (aluminum). The Al atom has lost three electrons and thus has three more positive charges (13) than it has electrons (10). This is the aluminum cation, Al 3+ .

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Give the symbol and name for the ion with 34 protons and 36 electrons.

Answer:

Se 2− , the selenide ion

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Formation of ions

Magnesium and nitrogen react to form an ionic compound. Predict which forms an anion, which forms a cation, and the charges of each ion. Write the symbol for each ion and name them.

Solution

Magnesium’s position in the periodic table (group 2) tells us that it is a metal. Metals form positive ions (cations). A magnesium atom must lose two electrons to have the same number electrons as an atom of the previous noble gas, neon. Thus, a magnesium atom will form a cation with two fewer electrons than protons and a charge of 2+. The symbol for the ion is Mg 2+ , and it is called a magnesium ion.

Nitrogen’s position in the periodic table (group 15) reveals that it is a nonmetal. Nonmetals form negative ions (anions). A nitrogen atom must gain three electrons to have the same number of electrons as an atom of the following noble gas, neon. Thus, a nitrogen atom will form an anion with three more electrons than protons and a charge of 3−. The symbol for the ion is N 3− , and it is called a nitride ion.

Check your learning

Aluminum and carbon react to form an ionic compound. Predict which forms an anion, which forms a cation, and the charges of each ion. Write the symbol for each ion and name them.

Answer:

Al will form a cation with a charge of 3+: Al 3+ , an aluminum ion. Carbon will form an anion with a charge of 4−: C 4− , a carbide ion.

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The ions that we have discussed so far are called monatomic ions , that is, they are ions formed from only one atom. We also find many polyatomic ions . These ions, which act as discrete units, are electrically charged molecules (a group of bonded atoms with an overall charge). Some of the more important polyatomic ions are listed in [link] . Oxyanions are polyatomic ions that contain one or more oxygen atoms. At this point in your study of chemistry, you should memorize the names, formulas, and charges of the most common polyatomic ions. Because you will use them repeatedly, they will soon become familiar.

Common Polyatomic Ions
Name Formula Related Acid Formula
ammonium NH 4 +
hydronium H 3 O +
oxide O 2-
peroxide O 2 2-
hydroxide OH -
acetate CH 3 COO - acetic acid CH 3 COOH
cyanide CN hydrocyanic acid HCN
azide N 3 - hydrazoic acid HN 3
carbonate CO 3 2- carbonic acid H 2 CO 3
bicarbonate HCO 3 -
nitrate NO 3 nitric acid HNO 3
nitrite NO 2 nitrous acid HNO 2
sulfate SO 4 2− sulfiric acid H 2 SO 4
hydrogen sulfate HSO 4
sulfite SO 3 2− sulfurous acid H 2 SO 3
hydrogen sulfite HSO 3
phosphate PO 4 3− phosphoric acid H 3 PO 4
hydrogen phosphate HPO 4 2−
dihydrogen phosphate H 2 PO 4
perchlorate ClO 4 perchloric acid HClO 4
chlorate ClO 3 chloric acid HClO 3
chlorite ClO 2 chlorous acid HClO 2
hypochlorite ClO hypochlorous acid HClO
chromate CrO 4 2− chromic acid H 2 Cr 2 O 4
dichromate Cr 2 O 7 2− dichromic acid H 2 Cr 2 O 7
permanganate MnO 4 permanganic acid HMnO 4

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
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what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
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industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
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How we are making nano material?
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
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scanning tunneling microscope
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
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if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
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analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
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what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
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why?
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what school?
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
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research.net
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sciencedirect big data base
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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The eyes of some reptiles are sensitive to 850 nm light. If the minimum energy to trigger the receptor at this wavelength is 3.15 x 10-14 J, what is the minimum number of 850 nm photons that must hit the receptor in order for it to be triggered?
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A teaspoon of the carbohydrate sucrose contains 16 calories, what is the mass of one teaspoo of sucrose if the average number of calories for carbohydrate is 4.1 calories/g?
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4. On the basis of dipole moments and/or hydrogen bonding, explain in a qualitative way the differences in the boiling points of acetone (56.2 °C) and 1-propanol (97.4 °C), which have similar molar masses
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Calculate the bond order for an ion with this configuration: (?2s)2(??2s)2(?2px)2(?2py,?2pz)4(??2py,??2pz)3
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Which of the following will increase the percent of HF that is converted to the fluoride ion in water? (a) addition of NaOH (b) addition of HCl (c) addition of NaF
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Practice Key Terms 8

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Source:  OpenStax, Ut austin - principles of chemistry. OpenStax CNX. Mar 31, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11830/1.13
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