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This module defines what a variable is and what it does.

A variable is a letter that stands for a number you don’t know, or a number that can change.

A few examples:

Good examples of variable definitions

  • “Let p be the number of people in a classroom.”
  • “Let A be John’s age, measured in years.”
  • “Let h be the number of hours that Susan has been working.”

In each case, the letter stands for a very specific number. However, we use a letter instead of a number because we don’t know the specific number. In the first example above, different classrooms will have different numbers of people (so p can be different numbers in different classes); in the second example, John’s age is a specific and well-defined number, but we don’t know what it is (at least not yet); and in the third example, h will actually change its value every hour. In all three cases, we have a good reason for using a letter: it represents a number, but we cannot use a specific number such as “–3” or “ 4 1 2 ”.

Bad examples of variable definitions

  • “Let n be the nickels.”
  • “Let M be the number of minutes in an hour.”

The first error is by far the most common. Remember that a variable always stands for a number. “The nickels” are not a number. Better definitions would be: “Let n be the number of nickels” or “Let n be the total value of the nickels, measured in cents” or “Let n be the total mass of the nickels, measured in grams.”

The second example is better, because “number of minutes in an hour” is a number. But there is no reason to call it “The Mysterious Mr. M” because we already know what it is. Why use a letter when you just mean “60”?

Bad variable definitions are one of the most common reasons that students get stuck on word problems—or get the wrong answer. The first type of error illustrated above leads to variable confusion: n will end up being used for “number of nickels” in one equation and “total value of the nickels” in another, and you end up with the wrong answer. The second type of error is more harmless—it won’t lead to wrong answers—but it won’t help either. It usually indicates that the student is asking the wrong question (“What can I assign a variable to?”) instead of the right question (“What numbers do I need to know?”)

Variables aren’t all called x. get used to it.

Many students expect all variables to be named x , with possibly an occasional guest appearance by y . In fact, variables can be named with practically any letter. Uppercase letters, lowercase letters, and even Greek letters are commonly used for variable names. Hence, a problem might start with “Let H be the home team’s score and V be the visiting team’s score.”

If you attempt to call both of these variables x , it just won’t work. You could in principle call one of them x and the other y , but that would make it more difficult to remember which variable goes with which team. It is important to become comfortable using a wide range of letters. (I do, however, recommend avoiding the letter o whenever possible, since it looks like the number 0.)

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Math 1508 (lecture) readings in precalculus. OpenStax CNX. Aug 24, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11354/1.1
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