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Sosiale wetenskappe

Aardrykskunde

Graad 8

Kaartwerk

Module 12

Die ligging van ‘n plek

Daar is verskillende maniere om ’n plek se ligging te bepaal:

1. Die indeks van die atlas

Agter in elke atlas is ’n alfabetiese lys van plekname.

Kom ons gebruik Oudtshoorn as ’n voorbeeld: Oudtshoorn RSA 8 - 33º 36’ S, 22º 11’ O.

  • Direk na Oudtshoorn staan die bladsy in die atlas van die kaart waarop Oudtshoorn aangetref sal word.
  • Daarna volg die breedteligging : 33º 36’ S.
  • Gevolg deur die lengteligging : 22º 11’ O.
  • Waar die twee lyne op die kaart kruis sal Oudtshoorn geleë wees.

Voorbeeld:

ONTHOU!

Die breedtelyn word ALTYD EERSTE gegee. Suid-Afrika is mos in die Suidelike Halfrond geleë en daarom word die suider-breedtelyn eerste genoem gevolg deur die ooster-lengtelyn want Suid-Afrika lê ook in die Oostelike Halfrond.

AKTIWITEIT 1

  • Vind die ligging van die volgende plekke deur van die atlas se indeks gebruik te maak:
  1. Noupoort
  2. Port Elizabeth
  3. Johannesburg
  4. Durban
  5. Stellenbosch

[LU 1.2]

2. Die Alfa-numeriese stelsel

’n Kaart word in blokke opgedeel wat almal ewe groot is. Horisontaal word dit numeries (met nommers) gemerk. Vertikaal word dit met letters alfabeties genommer. Die letter en die nommer van ’n blok word dan gebruik om ’n plek se ligging aan te dui.

Voorbeeld:

  • Die man kom in blok A3 voor.

AKTIWITEIT 2

  • Benoem die blokke waar die volgende verskynsels voorkom.

1. ’n Gebou : ..................................................

2. ’n Perd : ..................................................

3. ’n Boom : ..................................................

4. ’n Motor : ..................................................

[LU 1.1]

3. Ruitverwysing / Koördinate

Dit is die metode waardeur ligging op 1:50 000 topografiese kaarte aangedui word.

Elke topografiese kaartvel verteenwoordig ’n gedeelte van ’n graad (º).

’n Graad word weer opgedeel in 60 minute (‘).

Een minuut word weer opgedeel in 60 sekondes (“).

Voorbeeld:

  • Die ligging van A is 33º 31’ S; 22º 12’ O.
  • Die ligging van B is 33º 33’ S; 22º 14’ O.
  • Wat sal die ligging van C en D dan wees?

ONTHOU!

Daar is 60 sekondes (“) tussen twee minuutlyne en dit word nie op ’n topografiese kaart aangedui nie. Hierdie 60” moet geskat word (30” lê byvoorbeeld min of meer in die middel).

Die ligging van C is 33º 34’ 10” S; 22º 11’ 25” O.

Die ligging van D is 33º 33’ 30” S; 22º 15’ 50” O.

ONTHOU!

Op 1:50 000 topografiese kaarte is alle breedtelyne SUIDER-breedtelyne en vergroot suidwaarts. Alle lengtelyne is OOSTER-lengtelyne en vergroot ooswaarts. BREEDTELYNE word ALTYD EERSTE genoem.

Assessering

Leeruitkomstes(LUs)
LU 1
Aardrykskundige OndersoekDie leerder is in staat om ondersoekvaardighede te gebruik om aardrykskundige en omgewingsbegrippe en -prosesse te ondersoek.
Assesseringstandaarde(ASe)
Dit is duidelik wanneer die leerder:
1.1 ‘n verskeidenheid geografiese en omgewingsbronne identifiseer en selekteer wat relevant tot die navorsing is;1.2 inligting vanaf kaarte en atlasse, asook grafiese en statistiese bronne, interpreteer;1.3 afstandberekening doen op kaarte en dit vergelyk met werklike afstand;1.4 fisiese en mensgemaakte eienskappe op lugfoto’s en kaarte identifiseer.

Memorandum

AKTIWITEIT1:

  1. B2.
  2. C4.
  3. D2.
  4. E5.

AKTIWITEIT2:

  1. Alice.
  2. NO.
  3. 52° - laat speling toe.
  4. NO.
  5. 282° - laat speling toe.
  6. Noord.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Aardrykskunde graad 8. OpenStax CNX. Sep 11, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11035/1.1
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