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2.5 discusses and interprets concepts of power, control and dominance in mass media and popular culture;

DANCE

2.7 reflects on and compares how social dances reflect their time;

DRAMA

2.8 analyses the positive and negative effects of television, radio, documentaries or films on our lives;

2.9 writes a review of a local or other drama production, referring to conventions of staging and elements of drama;

MUSIC

2.10 analyses how music is used in songs, rituals, public events, films, opera or advertisements to evoke response;

VISUAL ART

2.11 investigates and explains the influences and circumstances shaping the development of a South African, African or international artist, past or present.

Memorandum

Activity 1

Requirements: Learner journal / Examples of selected artists / Art books to

use as reference for research (be prepared).

In Modules 1 and 2, design for packaging and sub-cultures were studied. In Module 3, we shall go back even further in history to the 50's, 60's and 70's. (Bear in mind the research of Module 1 - Dance.) The influences on and the circumstances, personal and historic, surrounding a specific artist's work will be scrutinised.

The availability of information and references will determine which artist is selected. There is a choice of South African, African or an international artist. If sources or information are difficult to find, contact EDULIS at (021) 948-7504 for help. The postal

address is Private Bag X9099, Cape Town 8000. They have a large variety of art books, videos and discs which are available on loan. Registration is free.

Remember, your choice of artist must interest the learners. You could suggest a variety of artists and allow the learners to choose which one they wish to research. Bear in mind that the artist must have lived and worked in the 50's, 60's or 70's.

STEP 1

  • To serve as an example for the educator, the international artist, David Hockney will be researched. Find examples of the work of the artist and make photostats, slides or transparencies for a discussion in class.

BACKGROUND OF THE ARTIST

David Hockney was born in l937 and grew up in the industrial village of Bradford in northern England. At the age of 11, he decided to become an artist. He made drawings for the school magazine and made posters for the debating society. In the late 50's he began studying art at The Royal College of Art in London.

Influences on the artist

THE FIFTIES

Sees the exhibition of Abstract Impressionism (Jackson Pollock was one of the artists famous for his drip and spatter tecnique.)

Art works containing figures were regarded as anti-modern.

Hockney initially also worked abstractly, but found it too superficial.

Starts to write words / slogans in graffiti across his work for a more personal element and later adds simple figures.

Pop Art (where artists make images of popular culture in their works of art) originated in England (Richard Hamilton is the founder).

Popular magazine type images influence Hockney's work.

THE SIXTIES

Visits New York and likes the freedom of the American community.

Meets Andy Warhol (American pop artist well-known for his numerous silk screen portayals of Marilyn Monroe).

Hockney moves to Los Angeles where the local way of life and the landscape become two important elements / characteristics in his work.

His style becomes more true to nature - a simplified glance at the world.

His use of colour becomes brighter as a result of the sunny weather in California, in contrast with the dark cold weather of England.

He changes his medium of paint from oil to acrylic.

Paints much more simplistic interiors with geometric forms which strongly remind of Matisse (an artist who worked very decoratively at the beginning of the 20th century).

Images of the popular pop group, The Beatles, appear in his work.

Starts taking photos for documentation purposes.

THE SEVENTIES

Clothing/fashions start to appear in his work.

Experimenting with photography - progress of technology and especially digital images become more and more important.

Hockney still uses the same themes as before, namely landscapes, still lives, swimming pools and portraits.

Starts to create photo collages to surpass the frozen moment of traditional photography and borrows from Cubism (a form of art where all forms are portrayed as geometric, made famous especially by Picasso) to change the single perspective photo into a kaleidoscope of images.

Uses photos in layers on top of one another, like adding layers of paint.

Picasso dies and Hockney makes a series of etchings to honour his memory.

Starts designing theatre set (an interest of his since his father often took him to the theatre as a child).

Designs sets and costumes for The Magic Flute of Mozart and Tristan and Isolde of Wagner.

Designs the covers of the magazine Vogue and patterns for a manufacturer of carpets.

EXAMPLES OF HIS WORKS

The Second Tea Painting (1961)

Beverly Hills Housewife (1966)

A Bigger Splash (1967)

A Lawn being Sprinkled (1967)

Mr and Mrs Clark and Percy (1970)

Pearblossom Highway, 11 -18th April 1986#2

The information on the artist is used to identify the influences on his work using the above.

STEP 2

  • The learners must now choose the artist that they wish to research. The task / project is done in their journals. The learners must be reminded that they must compile a bibliography of their resources.

Questions & Answers

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research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Daniel
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Akash Reply
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Anassong
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there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
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are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
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Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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s. Reply
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Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
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SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Arts and culture grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11067/1.1
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