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This document introduces simple CNXML tags that are easy to use in Edit-in-Place.
This module also contains information derived from The Advanced CNXML by Ricardo Radaelli-Sanchez .

Starting with cnxml

To create the bare bones of content in Connexions, the author interface provides a variety of creation tools: the Document Importer, Edit-In-Place, and even a full-source editor. However, a basic knowledge of our markup language can help make small edits into tremendous enhancements to your material!

Connexions uses the Connexions Markup Language ( CNXML ) as its primary language for marking up and storing documents. CNXML is lightweight XML for marking up educational content. Unlike the well-known HTML, the goal of CNXML is to conveythe content of the material and not a particular presentation. For example, say you have the following sentence: I like cupcakes very much. However, you feel that you enthusiasm for cupcakes has not been fully expressed. In HTML, you would use bold, underline, italic, etc.; in CNXML, you would use the emphasis tag .

Inline tags

Inline tags, such as emphasis, are used to embed content and functionality inside the structural tags, such as paragraphs. Some of the more commonly used tags are discussed below.


As mentioned previously , the emphasis tag is used to accent certain text. Note that this refers to semantic emphasis and not a typeface. Different stylesheets can render emphasis with different typefaces.

<para id='intro'>Gardenias are my absolute<emphasis>favorite</emphasis>flower. Their petals are soft, and their bloom has anabsolutely<emphasis>heavenly</emphasis>scent.</para>

The above markup will display as:

Gardenias are my absolute favorite flower. Their petals are soft, and their bloom has an absolutely heavenly scent.


The term tag is used to mark words or phrases which are being defined. However, itsuse is confined to either a para or definition tag. The term tag has one optional attribute : URL - a URL specifying the source or definition of theterm.

<para id='gardenia'><term url="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gardenia">Gardenias</term>can be tricky to maintain. The soil around the roots of a<term>gardenia</term>must remain moist always, but too much water can damage the plant. Also,<term>gardenias</term>enjoy the sun, but if the<emphasis>foliage</emphasis>gets wet to bring the gardenia into the shade.</para>

The above markup will display as:

Gardenias can be tricky to maintain. The soil around the roots of a gardenia must remain moist always, but too much water can damage the plant. Also, gardenias enjoy the sun, but if the foliage gets wet to bring the gardenia into the shade.


The note tag creates an "out of line" note to the reader. The type of note is specified by an optional type attribute. If a type is not specified, the default is Note . The type attribute can contain any of the following values:

  • note
  • aside
  • warning
  • tip
  • important

<para id='pollen'>Receiving flowers is, on the whole, a wonderful thing. However, sometimes pollen from the flowers can causeproblems. In particular, the clean up of a bit of pollen can be tricky.<note type="Important">Do not use water when cleaning up pollen! This can lead tocounter-top and clothing stains!</note>Your best bet is to use a dry method of cleaning with a paper-towel.</para>

The above markup will display as:

Receiving flowers is, on the whole, a wonderful thing. However, sometimes pollen from the flowers can cause problems. In particular, the clean up of a bit of pollen can be tricky.

Do not use water when cleaning up pollen! This can lead to counter-top and clothing stains!
Your best bet is to use a dry method of cleaning, with a paper-towel, for example.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, 2008-'09 open education cup: high performance computing. OpenStax CNX. Oct 28, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10594/1.3
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