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  • Define quantum number.
  • Calculate angle of angular momentum vector with an axis.
  • Define spin quantum number.

Physical characteristics that are quantized—such as energy, charge, and angular momentum—are of such importance that names and symbols are given to them. The values of quantized entities are expressed in terms of quantum numbers    , and the rules governing them are of the utmost importance in determining what nature is and does. This section covers some of the more important quantum numbers and rules—all of which apply in chemistry, material science, and far beyond the realm of atomic physics, where they were first discovered. Once again, we see how physics makes discoveries which enable other fields to grow.

The energy states of bound systems are quantized , because the particle wavelength can fit into the bounds of the system in only certain ways. This was elaborated for the hydrogen atom, for which the allowed energies are expressed as E n 1/ n 2 , where n = 1, 2, 3, ... . We define n to be the principal quantum number that labels the basic states of a system. The lowest-energy state has n = 1 , the first excited state has n = 2 , and so on. Thus the allowed values for the principal quantum number are

n = 1, 2, 3, ... . size 12{n=1, 2, 3, "." "." "." } {}

This is more than just a numbering scheme, since the energy of the system, such as the hydrogen atom, can be expressed as some function of n size 12{n} {} , as can other characteristics (such as the orbital radii of the hydrogen atom).

The fact that the magnitude of angular momentum is quantized was first recognized by Bohr in relation to the hydrogen atom; it is now known to be true in general. With the development of quantum mechanics, it was found that the magnitude of angular momentum L size 12{L} {} can have only the values

L = l l + 1 h size 12{L= sqrt {l left (l+1 right )} { {h} over {2π} } } {} l = 0, 1, 2, ... , n 1 , size 12{ left (l=0, 1, 2, "." "." "." ,n - 1 right )} {}

where l size 12{l} {} is defined to be the angular momentum quantum number    . The rule for l size 12{l} {} in atoms is given in the parentheses. Given n size 12{n} {} , the value of l size 12{l} {} can be any integer from zero up to n 1 size 12{n - 1} {} . For example, if n = 4 size 12{n=4} {} , then l size 12{l} {} can be 0, 1, 2, or 3.

Note that for n = 1 size 12{n=1} {} , l size 12{l} {} can only be zero. This means that the ground-state angular momentum for hydrogen is actually zero, not h / 2 π as Bohr proposed. The picture of circular orbits is not valid, because there would be angular momentum for any circular orbit. A more valid picture is the cloud of probability shown for the ground state of hydrogen in [link] . The electron actually spends time in and near the nucleus. The reason the electron does not remain in the nucleus is related to Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle—the electron’s energy would have to be much too large to be confined to the small space of the nucleus. Now the first excited state of hydrogen has n = 2 size 12{n=2} {} , so that l size 12{l} {} can be either 0 or 1, according to the rule in L = l l + 1 h size 12{L= sqrt {l left (l+1 right )} { {h} over {2π} } } {} . Similarly, for n = 3 size 12{n=3} {} , l size 12{l} {} can be 0, 1, or 2. It is often most convenient to state the value of l size 12{l} {} , a simple integer, rather than calculating the value of L size 12{L} {} from L = l l + 1 h size 12{L= sqrt {l left (l+1 right )} { {h} over {2π} } } {} . For example, for l = 2 size 12{l=2} {} , we see that

L = 2 2 + 1 h = 6 h = 0 . 390 h = 2 . 58 × 10 34 J s . size 12{L= sqrt {2 left (2+1 right )} { {h} over {2π} } = sqrt {6} { {h} over {2π} } =0 "." "390"h=2 "." "58" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } " J" cdot s} {}

It is much simpler to state l = 2 size 12{l=2} {} .

As recognized in the Zeeman effect, the direction of angular momentum is quantized . We now know this is true in all circumstances. It is found that the component of angular momentum along one direction in space, usually called the z size 12{z} {} -axis, can have only certain values of L z size 12{L rSub { size 8{z} } } {} . The direction in space must be related to something physical, such as the direction of the magnetic field at that location. This is an aspect of relativity. Direction has no meaning if there is nothing that varies with direction, as does magnetic force. The allowed values of L z size 12{L rSub { size 8{z} } } {} are

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, College physics -- hlca 1104. OpenStax CNX. May 18, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11525/1.1
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