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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1301 to 1400

China and manchuria (ming dynasty)

In 1428 the Ming Empire was divided into thirteen provinces, plus the two metropolitan areas of Peking and Nanking. China's canal system was enlarged and nothing in the world equaled China's internal water traffic and trade. Eventually some of the river rafts were three miles long, able to ingeniously fold so as to make the bends in the rivers. (Ref. 260 ) Fortunately the invention and construction of deep water locks throughout the length of the Grand Canal allowed the use of that canal 12 months a year, without having to worry about high and low water periods. (Ref. 279 )

In addition, great maritime expeditions established Chinese hegemony over the key commercial centers of the Indian Ocean, the Malacca straits, Ceylon, Calicut and less definitely at the Persian Gulf. By 1420 the navy was comprised of at least 3,800 ships of which 1,350 were fighting vessels, including 400 large floating fortresses. (Ref. 279 ) Between 1405 and 1433 a Chinese Admiral Cheng-ho, actually a Moslem eunuch, had made seven voyages into the Indian Ocean, bringing back objects from Java, Ceylon and even East Africa. He had 62 ships, the largest vessels probably displacing about 1,500 tons

In comparison, Vasco da Gama's flagship displaced only 300 tons. (Ref. 279 )
and carrying 28,000 men. Including the expeditions under other leaders there were perhaps some 250 vessels participating in the various overseas projects, all of which came to an abrupt halt in 1434 when the emperor suddenly ordered the expeditions stopped and prohibited any further ship construction. The result of this was delivery of the China coast into the hands of the Japanese
Although the Japanese were blamed, McNeill (Ref. 279 ) says that these actually were chiefly Chinese merchant sailors who now had to make their living illegally in this way.
and Malay pirates along with the Portuguese sailors. (Ref. 46 , 8 , 101 , 260 )

Politically, Ming China was somewhat subdued, because of the previous excesses of the Mongol Dynasty and some conscious social leveling affected by the early Ming rulers.

The rich were humbled, slavery was abolished and the poor were pampered with low rental, state land and gifts of seeds, tools and farm animals. China received her horses from Asia, particularly through special frontier fairs in Mongolia and Manchuria. (Ref. 260 ) Fairs were not seen in the number and way that we met in Europe. When the nation was pretty well unified under the Mings, the fairs almost -completely disappeared from the interior and appeared only on the external frontiers, as noted regarding the horse fairs near Manchuria. Occasionally a caravan would arrive from Moscow, setting up fairs in Hanchu or Cheng Tun. (Ref. 292 )

In the first half of the century metal characters for use as moveable type were perfected (this may actually have been done in Korea) and these soon became widely used for 50 years before the Gutenberg "invention". Inflation, which had been occurring over several centuries, now reached the point where 1,000 paper notes were required for 3 caixas of cash, so the state abandoned the paper money and private banks put it out only for local needs. As paper money disappeared, rice reappeared as a money substitute for ex- change. (Ref. 260 )

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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