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The far east

Back to The Far East: A.D. 1301 to 1400

China and manchuria (ming dynasty)

In 1428 the Ming Empire was divided into thirteen provinces, plus the two metropolitan areas of Peking and Nanking. China's canal system was enlarged and nothing in the world equaled China's internal water traffic and trade. Eventually some of the river rafts were three miles long, able to ingeniously fold so as to make the bends in the rivers. (Ref. 260 ) Fortunately the invention and construction of deep water locks throughout the length of the Grand Canal allowed the use of that canal 12 months a year, without having to worry about high and low water periods. (Ref. 279 )

In addition, great maritime expeditions established Chinese hegemony over the key commercial centers of the Indian Ocean, the Malacca straits, Ceylon, Calicut and less definitely at the Persian Gulf. By 1420 the navy was comprised of at least 3,800 ships of which 1,350 were fighting vessels, including 400 large floating fortresses. (Ref. 279 ) Between 1405 and 1433 a Chinese Admiral Cheng-ho, actually a Moslem eunuch, had made seven voyages into the Indian Ocean, bringing back objects from Java, Ceylon and even East Africa. He had 62 ships, the largest vessels probably displacing about 1,500 tons

In comparison, Vasco da Gama's flagship displaced only 300 tons. (Ref. 279 )
and carrying 28,000 men. Including the expeditions under other leaders there were perhaps some 250 vessels participating in the various overseas projects, all of which came to an abrupt halt in 1434 when the emperor suddenly ordered the expeditions stopped and prohibited any further ship construction. The result of this was delivery of the China coast into the hands of the Japanese
Although the Japanese were blamed, McNeill (Ref. 279 ) says that these actually were chiefly Chinese merchant sailors who now had to make their living illegally in this way.
and Malay pirates along with the Portuguese sailors. (Ref. 46 , 8 , 101 , 260 )

Politically, Ming China was somewhat subdued, because of the previous excesses of the Mongol Dynasty and some conscious social leveling affected by the early Ming rulers.

The rich were humbled, slavery was abolished and the poor were pampered with low rental, state land and gifts of seeds, tools and farm animals. China received her horses from Asia, particularly through special frontier fairs in Mongolia and Manchuria. (Ref. 260 ) Fairs were not seen in the number and way that we met in Europe. When the nation was pretty well unified under the Mings, the fairs almost -completely disappeared from the interior and appeared only on the external frontiers, as noted regarding the horse fairs near Manchuria. Occasionally a caravan would arrive from Moscow, setting up fairs in Hanchu or Cheng Tun. (Ref. 292 )

In the first half of the century metal characters for use as moveable type were perfected (this may actually have been done in Korea) and these soon became widely used for 50 years before the Gutenberg "invention". Inflation, which had been occurring over several centuries, now reached the point where 1,000 paper notes were required for 3 caixas of cash, so the state abandoned the paper money and private banks put it out only for local needs. As paper money disappeared, rice reappeared as a money substitute for ex- change. (Ref. 260 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
Researchers demonstrated that the hippocampus functions in memory processing by creating lesions in the hippocampi of rats, which resulted in ________.
Mapo Reply
The formulation of new memories is sometimes called ________, and the process of bringing up old memories is called ________.
Mapo Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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