<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

But there are limits to Bohr’s theory. It cannot be applied to multielectron atoms, even one as simple as a two-electron helium atom. Bohr’s model is what we call semiclassical . The orbits are quantized (nonclassical) but are assumed to be simple circular paths (classical). As quantum mechanics was developed, it became clear that there are no well-defined orbits; rather, there are clouds of probability. Bohr’s theory also did not explain that some spectral lines are doublets (split into two) when examined closely. We shall examine many of these aspects of quantum mechanics in more detail, but it should be kept in mind that Bohr did not fail. Rather, he made very important steps along the path to greater knowledge and laid the foundation for all of atomic physics that has since evolved.

Phet explorations: models of the hydrogen atom

How did scientists figure out the structure of atoms without looking at them? Try out different models by shooting light at the atom. Check how the prediction of the model matches the experimental results.

Models of the Hydrogen Atom

Section summary

  • The planetary model of the atom pictures electrons orbiting the nucleus in the way that planets orbit the sun. Bohr used the planetary model to develop the first reasonable theory of hydrogen, the simplest atom. Atomic and molecular spectra are quantized, with hydrogen spectrum wavelengths given by the formula
    1 λ = R 1 n f 2 1 n i 2 , size 12{ { {1} over {λ} } =R left ( { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{f} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } - { {1} over {n rSub { size 8{i} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } right )} {}
    where λ size 12{λ} {} is the wavelength of the emitted EM radiation and R size 12{R} {} is the Rydberg constant, which has the value
    R = 1.097 × 10 7 m −1 .
  • The constants n i size 12{n rSub { size 8{i} } } {} and n f size 12{n rSub { size 8{f} } } {} are positive integers, and n i must be greater than n f size 12{n rSub { size 8{f} } } {} .
  • Bohr correctly proposed that the energy and radii of the orbits of electrons in atoms are quantized, with energy for transitions between orbits given by
    Δ E = hf = E i E f , size 12{ΔE= ital "hf"=E rSub { size 8{i} } - E rSub { size 8{f} } } {}
    where Δ E size 12{ΔE} {} is the change in energy between the initial and final orbits and hf size 12{ ital "hf"} {} is the energy of an absorbed or emitted photon. It is useful to plot orbital energies on a vertical graph called an energy-level diagram.
  • Bohr proposed that the allowed orbits are circular and must have quantized orbital angular momentum given by
    L = m e vr n = n h 2 π n = 1, 2, 3 … ,
    where L size 12{L} {} is the angular momentum, r n size 12{r rSub { size 8{n} } } {} is the radius of the n th size 12{n"th"} {} orbit, and h size 12{h} {} is Planck’s constant. For all one-electron (hydrogen-like) atoms, the radius of an orbit is given by
    r n = n 2 Z a B (allowed orbits n = 1, 2, 3, ...),
    Z size 12{Z} {} is the atomic number of an element (the number of electrons is has when neutral) and a B size 12{a rSub { size 8{B} } } {} is defined to be the Bohr radius, which is
    a B = h 2 4 π 2 m e kq e 2 = 0.529 × 10 10 m . size 12{a rSub { size 8{B} } = { {h rSup { size 8{2} } } over {4π rSup { size 8{2} } m rSub { size 8{e} } ital "kq" rSub { size 8{e} } rSup { size 8{2} } } } =0 "." "529" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "10"} } " m" "." } {}
  • Furthermore, the energies of hydrogen-like atoms are given by
    E n = Z 2 n 2 E 0 n = 1, 2, 3 ... , size 12{ left (n=1, 2, 3 "." "." "." right )} {}
    where E 0 size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } } {} is the ground-state energy and is given by
    E 0 = 2 q e 4 m e k 2 h 2 = 13.6 eV. size 12{E rSub { size 8{0} } = { {2π rSup { size 8{2} } q rSub { size 8{e} } rSup { size 8{4} } m rSub { size 8{e} } k rSup { size 8{2} } } over {h rSup { size 8{2} } } } ="13" "." 6" eV"} {}
    Thus, for hydrogen,
    E n = 13.6 eV n 2 size 12{E rSub { size 8{n} } = - { {"13" "." 6" eV"} over {n rSup { size 8{2} } } } } {} n = 1, 2, 3 ... . size 12{ left (n=1, 2, 3 "." "." "." right ) "." } {}
  • The Bohr Theory gives accurate values for the energy levels in hydrogen-like atoms, but it has been improved upon in several respects.

Conceptual questions

How do the allowed orbits for electrons in atoms differ from the allowed orbits for planets around the sun? Explain how the correspondence principle applies here.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply
Practice Key Terms 7

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, College physics -- hlca 1104. OpenStax CNX. May 18, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11525/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics -- hlca 1104' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask