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Africa

Back to Africa: A.D. 1301 to 1400

Northeast africa

This part of the world experienced no great change from the previous century. The Solomonid Dynasty in Ethiopia was at the height of its power and Amhara colonists continued to invade southern Shoa, Gojam and the base of the Semien Mountains. The Moslems controlled all the Red Sea coast, however, and confined the Christians to the Ethiopian highlands. Even Nubia became Moslem. The Caucasoid Azanians in the northeastern interior felt the impact of migrating Bantu speakers and the arrival of Nilo Hamites with their Cushitic languages, such as Galla, influenced the region. These Nilo-Hamites appear to have been a mixture from three origins, - Nilotic Negroids of the upper Nile, Cushitic Sidama of Ethiopia and a third of origin unknown. (Ref. 83 )

The Mamluk Dynasty continued in Egypt, but with declining power and influence.

It must be recalled that this ruling group were originally warriors from the Caucasus region and this communication with Black Sea ports allowed recurrent epidemic disasters in Egypt. Disease, helped probably by oppression and bad government, resulted in depopulation and impoverishment. The last great Mamluk sultan was Qaitbay (1468-96), an avid builder, who restored some of the greatness of the old Bahri period of the 13th century, but the decline of the empire was only temporarily halted. (Ref. 140 , 5 )

North central and northwest africa

The coast still had a high cultural level and now acted as a refuge for the Moors fleeing from the persecutions in Spain. With the decline of the Moroccan Marinids and after the Portuguese seized Ceuta, opposite from Gibralter in 1415, the Hafsids gained at least titular supremacy over all of western North Africa for while. By 1478 the Wattasid Sultanate developed in the far west and the Ziyanid Emir existed between the Wattasid and the slipping Hafsids. (Ref. 137 , 83 ) By the end of the century, the Arabs had established sugar cane in the Moroccan Sousse and from there it soon spread on into the Atlantic to Madeira, the Canaries and the Azores.

Subsaharan africa

Just southwest of the Sahara it was the heyday of the Songhai, who had great mosques at Timbuktu and Jenne and were famous for their piety and scholarship. Relationships of this particular empire with Morocco were not cordial because of competition for the trans-Saharan trade and the valuable salt mine of Taghaxa in the northern desert. This Songhai Empire came into its zenith about 1464, when a warrior king, the Sonni Ali, came to the throne of Gao in the middle Niger and by his death had extended his rule over the whole western Sudan. He had cavalry, levies of foot soldiers and flotillas of war canoes, which patrolled the 1,000 miles of the navigable Niger. It was he who ended the Mali Empire of Ghana. (Ref. 83 )

In the forest area of west Africa were the Edo, who developed great bronze sculpture in the Kingdom of Benin, near the coast of Nigeria. Benin was a walled city, 25 miles around, with wide, straight streets and spacious houses of wood. In Ife, in southwest Nigeria, one of these bronze heads was definitely made by the lost wax technique. Seven Hausa city-states, including Kano, Zaria, Gobir and Katsina had become flourishing commercial centers in the Sudan. Agriculture was the basis of society, with trade routes through the Sahara. Guinea, existing out on the southwest corner of the bulge of west Africa, would, at first glance, appear to be a site early exploited by Europeans, but actually it remained isolated for a long time because European ships could not return from there directly up the west African coast. Because of the Atlantic currents and wind, they had to go straight out to the middle Atlantic before they could turn and go north again. The people of Guinea were modest farmers and fishermen, with some local trade involving salt and dried fish. Deeper inland, they had some contact with the Sudan. This small country has a rain forest, but it is not deep and is traversed by the magnificent waterway, the Niger. Near the end of the century the Portugese did arrive to establish a trading post. A little to the east, the foundations had been laid for the famous forest states of Oyo and Akan, as well as Benin, which we have described above. (Ref. 206 , 17 , 83 , 8 ) The Sudan had gold mines, ruled by village chiefs and the workers approached the condition of slavery. (Ref. 292 )

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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