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The French language was spoken by the elite abroad before the French nation learned it. Marco Polo wrote the account of his travels in French. Since the time of Hugh Capet (10th century) about half a dozen dialects struggled for preponderance. The Crusade against the Albigensian heretics, for instance, was less a religious struggle than France 's version of a north-south civil war between the langue d'oc (language of the south) and the "langue d'oil" (language of the north). The latter won. (Ref. 74 )

The whole of France now used the vertical plane windmill as a source of power. By 1200 Montpellier, on the southern coast, had become the premier medical school of all Europe.

The netherlands and belgium

The Hanseatic League continued an active existence on the Baltic Sea and their ships were now using a new, true rudder and bowsprit, which allowed better close- hauled sailing. (Ref. 222 ) Holland, which had been a part of the Frank Kingdom from the 3rd to the 9th centuries, then an area of German feudal fiefs, began to have some unity in this 13th century. The Hague became the capital in 1250 and Amsterdam became a great free port in about 1297. Rotterdam had also began to rise in importance, with increasing trade with England. Hereafter Holland played a large part in the economic world. The Zuider Zee, which was originally a large, shallow lake in a swamp, became swollen with floods in this period and broke through to the North Sea, thereafter to be an arm of the ocean.

In Flanders the textile industry assumed a large scale, semi-capitalistic structure in which thousands of workers produced goods for investors of capital. Modern Belgium came chiefly from this Flanders territory. The people were Flemish, speaking a low German and Walloons, who were a mixture of Germans and French on a Celtic base, speaking a dialect of French. Throughout the Middle Ages they were variously dominated now by the English and now by the French.

British isles

Additional Notes


As the century opened King John (Lackland) lost all of the crown's possessions on the continent north of the Loire and got into serious trouble with the pope. To increase his difficulties his nobles insisted on limiting his powers, forcing him to reluctantly sign the Magna Charta, which was to have far reaching and long-lasting effect in the entire English speaking world. That document freed the Church of England from the monarchy, established the principles of Habeas Corpus and trial by jury, increased the power of the purse to Parliament and transformed an absolute monarchy into a limited and constitutional one. When King John died of dysentery in the next year, his nine year old son was crowned as Henry III. As he matured, Henry developed a love of splendor and unfortunately contributed very little to the English nation. His son, Edward I, who became king in 1272, however, was the best of the Plantagenet line. Because he established a Code of Laws, he has been called "the English Justinian" and he also was the foster father of the House of Commons and the first truly English king. He died in a campaign against Scotland.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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