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Another important requirement is that of nitrogen. Protein catabolism provides a source of organic nitrogen. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and protein breakdown provides amino acids that are used for cellular function. The carbon and nitrogen derived from these become the building block for nucleotides, nucleic acids, proteins, cells, and tissues. Excess nitrogen must be excreted as it is toxic. Fats add flavor to food and promote a sense of satiety or fullness. Fatty foods are also significant sources of energy because one gram of fat contains nine calories. Fats are required in the diet to aid the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and the production of fat-soluble hormones.

Essential nutrients

While the animal body can synthesize many of the molecules required for function from the organic precursors, there are some nutrients that need to be consumed from food. These nutrients are termed essential nutrients , meaning they must be eaten, and the body cannot produce them.

The omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid and the omega-6 linoleic acid are essential fatty acids needed to make some membrane phospholipids. Vitamins are another class of essential organic molecules that are required in small quantities for many enzymes to function and, for this reason, are considered to be co-enzymes. Absence or low levels of vitamins can have a dramatic effect on health, as outlined in [link] and [link] . Both fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins must be obtained from food. Minerals , listed in [link] , are inorganic essential nutrients that must be obtained from food. Among their many functions, minerals help in structure and regulation and are considered co-factors. Certain amino acids also must be procured from food and cannot be synthesized by the body. These amino acids are the “essential” amino acids. The human body can synthesize only 11 of the 20 required amino acids; the rest must be obtained from food. The essential amino acids are listed in [link] .

Water-soluble Essential Vitamins
Vitamin Function Deficiencies Can Lead To Sources
Vitamin B 1 (Thiamine) Needed by the body to process lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates Coenzyme removes CO 2 from organic compounds Muscle weakness, Beriberi: reduced heart function, CNS problems Milk, meat, dried beans, whole grains
Vitamin B 2 (Riboflavin) Takes an active role in metabolism, aiding in the conversion of food to energy (FAD and FMN) Cracks or sores on the outer surface of the lips (cheliosis); inflammation and redness of the tongue; moist, scaly skin inflammation (seborrheic dermatitis) Meat, eggs, enriched grains, vegetables
Vitamin B 3 (Niacin) Used by the body to release energy from carbohydrates and to process alcohol; required for the synthesis of sex hormones; component of coenzyme NAD + and NADP + Pellagra, which can result in dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and death Meat, eggs, grains, nuts, potatoes
Vitamin B 5 (Pantothenic acid) Assists in producing energy from foods (lipids, in particular); component of coenzyme A Fatigue, poor coordination, retarded growth, numbness, tingling of hands and feet Meat, whole grains, milk, fruits, vegetables
Vitamin B 6 (Pyridoxine) The principal vitamin for processing amino acids and lipids; also helps convert nutrients into energy Irritability, depression, confusion, mouth sores or ulcers, anemia, muscular twitching Meat, dairy products, whole grains, orange juice
Vitamin B 7 (Biotin) Used in energy and amino acid metabolism, fat synthesis, and fat breakdown; helps the body use blood sugar Hair loss, dermatitis, depression, numbness and tingling in the extremities; neuromuscular disorders Meat, eggs, legumes and other vegetables
Vitamin B 9 (Folic acid) Assists the normal development of cells, especially during fetal development; helps metabolize nucleic and amino acids Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects and anemia Leafy green vegetables, whole wheat, fruits, nuts, legumes
Vitamin B 12 (Cobalamin) Maintains healthy nervous system and assists with blood cell formation; coenzyme in nucleic acid metabolism Anemia, neurological disorders, numbness, loss of balance Meat, eggs, animal products
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) Helps maintain connective tissue: bone, cartilage, and dentin; boosts the immune system Scurvy, which results in bleeding, hair and tooth loss; joint pain and swelling; delayed wound healing Citrus fruits, broccoli, tomatoes, red sweet bell peppers
Fat-soluble Essential Vitamins
Vitamin Function Deficiencies Can Lead To Sources
Vitamin A (Retinol) Critical to the development of bones, teeth, and skin; helps maintain eyesight, enhances the immune system, fetal development, gene expression Night-blindness, skin disorders, impaired immunity Dark green leafy vegetables, yellow-orange vegetables fruits, milk, butter
Vitamin D Critical for calcium absorption for bone development and strength; maintains a stable nervous system; maintains a normal and strong heartbeat; helps in blood clotting Rickets, osteomalacia, immunity Cod liver oil, milk, egg yolk
Vitamin E (Tocopherol) Lessens oxidative damage of cells,and prevents lung damage from pollutants; vital to the immune system Deficiency is rare; anemia, nervous system degeneration Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, grains
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone) Essential to blood clotting Bleeding and easy bruising Leafy green vegetables, tea
Photo shows a variety of foods, including lobster, clams, nuts and liver.
A healthy diet should include a variety of foods to ensure that needs for essential nutrients are met. (credit: Keith Weller, USDA ARS)
Minerals and Their Function in the Human Body
Mineral Function Deficiencies Can Lead To Sources
*Calcium Needed for muscle and neuron function; heart health; builds bone and supports synthesis and function of blood cells; nerve function Osteoporosis, rickets, muscle spasms, impaired growth Milk, yogurt, fish, green leafy vegetables, legumes
*Chlorine Needed for production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach and nerve function; osmotic balance Muscle cramps, mood disturbances, reduced appetite Table salt
Copper (trace amounts) Required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase; cofactor for hemoglobin synthesis Copper deficiency is rare Liver, oysters, cocoa, chocolate, sesame, nuts
Iodine Required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones Goiter Seafood, iodized salt, dairy products
Iron Required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin, to prevent anemia Anemia, which causes poor concentration, fatigue, and poor immune function Red meat, leafy green vegetables, fish (tuna, salmon), eggs, dried fruits, beans, whole grains
*Magnesium Required co-factor for ATP formation; bone formation; normal membrane functions; muscle function Mood disturbances, muscle spasms Whole grains, leafy green vegetables
Manganese (trace amounts) A cofactor in enzyme functions; trace amounts are required Manganese deficiency is rare Common in most foods
Molybdenum (trace amounts) Acts as a cofactor for three essential enzymes in humans: sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and aldehyde oxidase Molybdenum deficiency is rare
*Phosphorus A component of bones and teeth; helps regulate acid-base balance; nucleotide synthesis Weakness, bone abnormalities, calcium loss Milk, hard cheese, whole grains, meats
*Potassium Vital for muscles, heart, and nerve function Cardiac rhythm disturbance, muscle weakness Legumes, potato skin, tomatoes, bananas
Selenium (trace amounts) A cofactor essential to activity of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase; trace amounts are required Selenium deficiency is rare Common in most foods
*Sodium Systemic electrolyte required for many functions; acid-base balance; water balance; nerve function Muscle cramps, fatigue, reduced appetite Table salt
Zinc (trace amounts) Required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase Anemia, poor wound healing, can lead to short stature Common in most foods
*Greater than 200mg/day required
Essential Amino Acids
Amino acids that must be consumed Amino acids anabolized by the body
isoleucine alanine
leucine selenocysteine
lysine aspartate
methionine cysteine
phenylalanine glutamate
tryptophan glycine
valine proline
histidine* serine
threonine tyrosine
arginine* asparagine
*The human body can synthesize histidine and arginine, but not in the quantities required, especially for growing children.

Questions & Answers

What is randomization
Joseph Reply
definition of stimulus
Thomas Reply
please explain me clinical studies
abril Reply
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
clinical studies are people who evaluate behavior, medical, and surgical intervention
Connie
what are the characteristics of learning?
steve Reply
The ability to learn is one of the most outstanding human characteristics. Learning occurs continuously throughout a person’s lifetime. To understand how people learn, it is necessary to understand what happens to the individual during the process. In spite of numerous theories and contrasting views
MUBARAK
Psychologists generally agree there are many characteristics of learning.
MUBARAK
Learning is the process by which one acquires, ingests, and stores or accepts information. The main characteristic of learning that; it is a process of obtaining knowledge to change human behavior through interaction, practice, and experience.
MUBARAK
Our experiences with learned information compose our bodies of knowledge.
MUBARAK
Is there not one universal understanding or relatable emotion whether physical or communicated verbally they could Trigger empathy?
Tory
what is immune system
Amanda Reply
a complex network of cells that protects the body against infection
Stephen
Sorry. Cells and proteins
Stephen
what is perspectives
acholonu Reply
someones point of view the way ur brain sees the way situations unfold
Echo
perspective is your view on topics
Trish
Perspective is your opinion on certain situations
Connie
your perspective is your interpretation of what is being said and done around you and how you hear and view them .
Jim
is this in reference to any particular use of the word? Because there are also the 7 major "perspectives" in psychology: psychodynamic, cognitive, behavioral, biological, cross-cultural, evolutionary, & humanistic
Alex
aren't they like schemas of the world, the future and yourself
naina
Perspective is your opinion on things that you feel, think or hear.
hiba
I'm trying to write a paper about video game and violence and suggestions or researches would help with this
rebal
do you also have to write about aggression and how its linked to video games and violence
naina
because for alevel psychology we could have a 16 marker essay for how media influences aggression which basically includes video games and violence on tv shows
naina
yes basically I'm arguing that video games cause violence not necessarily in a direct way but it plays apart. I'm trying to oppose the popular opinion of video games doesn't cause violence
rebal
It's not connected that much actually tbh
Kira
the way we think
according to my textbook rebal
naina
there is a lab study by Craig an Anderson- computer games mortal combat
naina
Matt delisi et al did a correlation study
naina
Lindsay Robertson et al - longitudinal study
naina
Craig Anderson also did a meta analysis of 136 studies
naina
I will check them thanks naina
rebal
Yes, that would be my recommendation.
Ashley Reply
merits and demerits of observation as a method of studying human behavior in education psychology
Khadija Reply
what is psychology
Khadija
psychology: scientific study of behaviour and mental processes.
Ahmed
how to mind reading?
UMESH
how to face reading
UMESH
energy and thought will give mind spirit and proper exercises , flexibility and making mind readind easier
Ahmed
How to read microexpresions easier?
Edg
scope of educationnalpsycology
USMAN
seriously i will pay someone to do an essay for me my god i need help so much 😪😪😪
dearbhlagh
what do you need help with ?
Keiko
The better question is how much?
Pixeled
🥒🍑😩💦
Jacob
hey all I'm Beth I just started psych 101 have 1st test any suggestions I should memorize ?
Bethany Reply
memorize dememorizing
devesh
how the blinds person his dream
Ahmed
Hi! I started as well
La
what is prototype
Arnav Reply
what is event schema
Arnav
Event schema is how you deal with situations is this installation is good you gonna handle a great but if it's badd you have to be strong I handle it the best way you can and stay positive
Connie
why do we adapt to negative events more quickly as compared to the positive ones?
Fareha
The negative ones are easier to adapt because of the people the we surround ourselves with if we surround ourselves with negative people who go to see things negatively but if we surround ourselves with positive people we are going to see things more positive
Connie
oh ok thanks!
Fareha
your welcome
Connie
what are the remedy for ADHD
anagha Reply
methylphenidate
Maryjade
counter conditioning
gad Reply
it is d conditioning were u add an unpleasant stimulus ad a pleasant stimulus to give a good response. eg a girl that hate or fears snake u add her mom to d picture because she loves her mother she gradually tends to like snake
dalusi
can I get an update on the discussion at hand
Segun
I'd like one as well, please
Trish
I third this.
Redacted
you guys could refer to a research by Mary Cover Jones. she did a study on counter conditioning.
Shubhra
i too would like to get an update on the dicussion please
Connie
so basically we are discussing about counter conditioning. if you all know about classical conditioning which was done by pavlov, later a similar thing was done by JB Watson, but on a child. this child was made to learn a phobia.
Shubhra
after his unethical experiment, his student mary cover jones also did an experiment where she proved, if a fear can be learnt, it can also be unlearn. hence, counter conditioning. where a negative stimulus (any fearful object) is followed by a pleasant stimulus (eg food).
Shubhra
After several pairings, the fear is neutralized.
Shubhra
hey, i wanted to know in positive counter conditioning a several trials are done to make the person unlearn their phobias but in aversive (-ve) counter conditioning,after just 1 trial a person learns that behaviour, why the negative behaviour is learnt in just 1 try?
Fareha
Please what is randomization?
Joseph
hi, may I have many MCQ?
Ango Reply
hi
Teri
what would you like to know
Connie
We want to know everything
victor
what's MCQ?
Ronah
Multiple Chouce Questiom
Connie
Who knows something about Multiple Personality Disorder ?
victor
Victor what you want to know in it
Brindhu
Everything you know about it.
victor
what you know about functionalism
Teri
@ Victor. Dissociative identity disorder or multiple personality disorder has two or more distinct personality states.they may be disconnected among thoughts, identity, consciousness and memory .this could be happened when to trauma of childhood incident or any other impact in life
Brindhu
how do you identify these altars ? and how do you easily identify MPD patient ?
victor
what is experimental bias
Teri
experimental bias is when you experiment with something and you like it and tell someone else about it and you tell them ira good even though they don't have the same reacton to it that you did
Connie
define Experiment
Teri
Experiment is trying something new you don't know how it's gonna work out or even if it will work or if it won't so you try it anyway it's sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn't
Connie
what is the difference between CBT and REBT
Zeeshan Reply
what it means to survive danger
Bonsa Reply
it's called bystander effect when people reject you
Jason
hey Jason
Bonsa
There are 2 meanings of surviving danger one is to be stronger than you were when you went in and the 2nd is a to have your wits about you and to keep yourself from getting into danger in the 1st place but if you have to be in danger Use your best common knowledge to get out of it
Connie
how do I overcome my fears of public speaking
Bonsa
There's many theories to that as well many people say the picture the audience in their underwear but that does not always work so what I do is I forget about the people in the audience and pretend like I'm by myself and you gonna find yourself about more comfortable and a lot more at ease
Connie
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Source:  OpenStax, Principles of biology. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11569/1.25
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