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The indian subcontinent

The Arabs who had invaded Sind in the last century were held at bay by the Pratiharase. These Sind Arabs now split up into the twin kingdoms of Multan and Mansura, later to become important trading communities on the Indus and independent of the Abbasids.

The consolidation of powerful states along the northern marches gave Indian politics a new character. No one state was strong enough to unite the north Indian plain, yet each was able to prevent any other from so doing. Frontier guard against Islam no longer was a problem and the Indian rulers were free to pursue their own quarrels. Finally the Pratiharas overcame the Palas and were in control of the Gangetic plain, becoming the greatest political power in India and great builders in the Gupta tradition. (Ref. 68 ) Cities flourished and the revival of Hinduism resulted in more and more organization around temples, so that everyone tended to cluster within the temple precincts. Royal courts began to play only a secondary role. Tantrism had now come to full flower as an atavistic, magical and libidinous cult absorbed into the Hindu practices, with special influence from eastern India to Nepal and Tibet. The most influential Hindu religious philosopher was Shankara (also Sankaracharya), a Brahman from Kerala, who tried to reduce the multiple concepts of the Upanishands to an intellectual system. (Ref. 8 ) Buddhism gradually merged back into the wider field of Indian religiosity from which it had sprung and it survived as a distinct doctrine only on the fringes of the Indian world, in Ceylon, Burma and Tibet. (Ref. 139 ) Even in Kashmir, Buddhism seemed to give way in some degree to Hinduism with the construction of the shrine of Avantisvami, made with steeply pitched, double-pent roofs, because of the heavy winter snows. The design had a central tower shrine and a smaller shrine in each corner, the typical Vishnu, Kashmiri temple. King Avantivarman (855-883) was one of Kashmir's most beloved monarchs, reigning in an era of peace. (Ref. 275 )

The Jains resisted the Tantric movement and retained their identity but with a very limited membership, chiefly in southern and western India. The Parsis, followers of Zoraster, came to India about this time as refuges from the Moslem conquest of Persia and they have survived until today mainly in the region around modern Bombay. In the Deccan, the Rashtrakutas, who had overthrown the Chalukyas, built the great temple of Ellora, carved from solid rock. They were also true patrons of literature. In the south the Pallavas were superseded by the Cholas, who sculpted hard stone and modeled bronze. (Ref. 173 ) Samkara, of Malabar on the southwest coast, revitalized the Vedanta

The Vedanta is a derivative of the Upanishads. (Ref. 119 )
and his doctrine became accepted as orthodox Brahmanism. He founded four scholastic monasteries.

(Continue on page 527)

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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