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Doppler shift

Although the speed of light does not change with relative velocity, the frequencies and wavelengths of light do. First discussed for sound waves, a Doppler shift occurs in any wave when there is relative motion between source and observer.

Relativistic doppler effects

The observed wavelength of electromagnetic radiation is longer (called a red shift) than that emitted by the source when the source moves away from the observer and shorter (called a blue shift) when the source moves towards the observer.

obs s 1 + u c 1 u c . size 12{λ rSub { size 8{"obs"} } ital "=λ" rSub { size 8{s} } sqrt { { {1+ { {u} over {c} } } over {1 - { {u} over {c} } } } } } {}

In the Doppler equation, λ obs size 12{λ rSub { size 8{"obs"} } } {} is the observed wavelength, λ s size 12{λ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is the source wavelength, and u size 12{u} {} is the relative velocity of the source to the observer. The velocity u size 12{u} {} is positive for motion away from an observer and negative for motion toward an observer. In terms of source frequency and observed frequency, this equation can be written

f obs =f s 1 u c 1 + u c . size 12{f rSub { size 8{"obs"} } ital "=f" rSub { size 8{s} } sqrt { { {1 - { {u} over {c} } } over {1+ { {u} over {c} } } } } } {}

Notice that the – and + signs are different than in the wavelength equation.

Career connection: astronomer

If you are interested in a career that requires a knowledge of special relativity, there’s probably no better connection than astronomy. Astronomers must take into account relativistic effects when they calculate distances, times, and speeds of black holes, galaxies, quasars, and all other astronomical objects. To have a career in astronomy, you need at least an undergraduate degree in either physics or astronomy, but a Master’s or doctoral degree is often required. You also need a good background in high-level mathematics.

Calculating a doppler shift: radio waves from a receding galaxy

Suppose a galaxy is moving away from the Earth at a speed 0.825 c . It emits radio waves with a wavelength of 0 . 525 m size 12{0 "." "525"" m"} {} . What wavelength would we detect on the Earth?

Strategy

Because the galaxy is moving at a relativistic speed, we must determine the Doppler shift of the radio waves using the relativistic Doppler shift instead of the classical Doppler shift.

Solution

  1. Identify the knowns. u= 0 . 825 c size 12{ ital "u="0 "." "825"c} {} ; λ s = 0 . 525 m size 12{λ rSub { size 8{s} } =0 "." "525"`m} {}
  2. Identify the unknown. λ obs size 12{λ rSub { size 8{"obs"} } } {}
  3. Choose the appropriate equation. λ obs s 1 + u c 1 u c size 12{λ rSub { size 8{"obs"} } ital "=λ" rSub { size 8{s} } sqrt { { {1+ { {u} over {c} } } over {1 - { {u} over {c} } } } } } {}
  4. Plug the knowns into the equation.
    λ obs = λ s 1 + u c 1 u c = ( 0.525 m ) 1 + 0 . 825 c c 1 0 . 825 c c = 1.70 m.

Discussion

Because the galaxy is moving away from the Earth, we expect the wavelengths of radiation it emits to be redshifted. The wavelength we calculated is 1.70 m, which is redshifted from the original wavelength of 0.525 m.

The relativistic Doppler shift is easy to observe. This equation has everyday applications ranging from Doppler-shifted radar velocity measurements of transportation to Doppler-radar storm monitoring. In astronomical observations, the relativistic Doppler shift provides velocity information such as the motion and distance of stars.

Suppose a space probe moves away from the Earth at a speed 0 . 350 c size 12{0 "." "350"c} {} . It sends a radio wave message back to the Earth at a frequency of 1.50 GHz. At what frequency is the message received on the Earth?

Answer

f obs =f s 1 u c 1 + u c = ( 1 . 50 GHz ) 1 0 . 350 c c 1 + 0 . 350 c c = 1 . 04 GHz size 12{f rSub { size 8{"obs"} } ital "=f" rSub { size 8{s} } sqrt { { {1 - { {u} over {c} } } over {1+ { {u} over {c} } } } } = \( 1 "." "50 GHz" \) sqrt { { {1 - { {0 "." "350" ital " c"} over {c} } } over {1+ { {0 "." "350" ital " c"} over {c} } } } } =1 "." "04 GHz"} {}

Section summary

  • With classical velocity addition, velocities add like regular numbers in one-dimensional motion: u=v+u size 12{ ital "u=v+u" rSup { size 8{'} } } {} , where v size 12{v} {} is the velocity between two observers, u size 12{u} {} is the velocity of an object relative to one observer, and u size 12{u rSup { size 8{'} } } {} is the velocity relative to the other observer.
  • Velocities cannot add to be greater than the speed of light. Relativistic velocity addition describes the velocities of an object moving at a relativistic speed:
    u= v+u 1 + v u c 2
  • An observer of electromagnetic radiation sees relativistic Doppler effects    if the source of the radiation is moving relative to the observer. The wavelength of the radiation is longer (called a red shift) than that emitted by the source when the source moves away from the observer and shorter (called a blue shift) when the source moves toward the observer. The shifted wavelength is described by the equation
    λ obs s 1 + u c 1 u c size 12{λ rSub { size 8{"obs"} } ital "=λ" rSub { size 8{s} } sqrt { { {1+ { {u} over {c} } } over {1 - { {u} over {c} } } } } } {}
    λ obs size 12{λ rSub { size 8{"obs"} } } {} is the observed wavelength, λ s size 12{λ rSub { size 8{s} } } {} is the source wavelength, and u size 12{u} {} is the relative velocity of the source to the observer.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
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What is STMs full form?
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scanning tunneling microscope
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
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what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Loga
what does nano mean?
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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where did you find the research and the first image (ECG and Blood pressure synchronized)? Thank you!!
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Source:  OpenStax, Physics 101. OpenStax CNX. Jan 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11479/1.1
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