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Cities provide numerous opportunities for their residents and offer significant benefits including access to goods to numerous job opportunities. At the same time, high population areas can lead to tensions between demographic groups, as well as environmental strain. While the population of urban dwellers is continuing to rise, sources of social strain are rising along with it. The ultimate challenge for today’s urbanites is finding an equitable way to share the city’s resources while reducing the pollution and energy use that negatively impacts the environment.

Short answer

What are the differences between the suburbs and the exurbs, and who is most likely to live in each?

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Most major cities in core countries are postindustrial. Can you think of an example of a growing city that is still in its industrial phase? How is it different from most U.S. cities?

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Considering the concentric zone model, what type of zone were you raised in? Is this the same or different as that of earlier generations in your family? What type of zone do you reside in now? Do you find that people from one zone stereotype those from another? If so, how?

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Further research

Interested in learning more about the latest research in the field of human ecology? Visit the Society for Human Ecology web site to discover what’s emerging in this field: (External Link)

Getting from place to place in urban areas might be more complicated than you think. Read the latest on pedestrian-traffic concerns at the Urban Blog web site: (External Link)


BBC. 2005. “Timeline: French Riots—A Chronology of Key Events.” November 14. Retrieved December 9, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Burgess, Ernest. 1925. “The Growth of the City.” Pp. 47–62 in The City , edited by R. Park and E. Burgess. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Chandler, Tertius and Gerald Fox. 1974. 3000 Years of Urban History . New York: Academic Press.

Dougherty, Connor. 2008. “The End of White Flight.” Wall Street Journal , July 19. Retrieved December 12, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Feagin, Joe, and Robert Parker. 1990. Building American Cities: The Urban Real Estate Game . 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

France24. 2010. “Sarkozy Promises War without Mercy for Paris Suburbs.” France 24 , April 10. Retrieved December 9, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Hochschild, Arlie. 2001. “The Nanny Chain.” The American Prospect , December 19. Retrieved December 9, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

LeBlanc, Adrien Nicole. 2003. Random Family: Love, Drugs, Trouble and Coming of Age in the Bronx . New York: Scribner.

Park, Robert. 1934 [1915]. “The City: Suggestions for Investigations of Human Behavior in the City.” American Journal of Sociology 20:577–612.

Park, Robert. 1936. “Human Ecology.” American Journal of Sociology 42:1–15.

Old Bailey Proceedings Online. 2011. “Population History of London.” Retrieved December 11, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Sciolino, Elaine, and Ariane Bernand. 2006. “Anger Festering in French Areas Scarred in Riots.” New York Times , October 21. Retrieved December 11, 2011 ( (External Link)&sq=paris+suburb&st=nyt ).

Sinclair, Upton. 1906. The Jungle . New York: Doubleday.

Sjoberg, Gideon. 1965. The Preindustrial City: Past and Present . New York: Free Press.

Talbot, Margaret. 2003. “Review: Random Family. Love, Drugs, Trouble and Coming of Age in the Bronx.” New York Times , February 9. Retrieved December 12, 2011 ( (External Link)&src=pm ).

United States Department of Labor. “Women in the Labor Force in 2010.” Retrieved January 23, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Waite, Linda J. 1981. “U.S. Women at Work.” Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation. Retrieved January 23, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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What is called research problem and how we narrow down a research question and why it is needed
Karamat Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to sociology. OpenStax CNX. Jun 12, 2012 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11407/1.7
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