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Back to Africa: A.D. 401 to 500

Northeast africa

There were three separate Christian kingdoms in the region of Nubia in the middle Nile. At Ibrim an old temple, which was originally built probably during the Ethiopian Dynasty of Egypt in the 7th century B.C. and then modified later with typical Meriotic graffiti and votive inscriptions, was now made into the earliest of Ibrim Christian churches. A defensive wall around the church is now partially covered by Lake Nasser. (Ref. 271 )

Early Abyssinians were active militarily, invading the Yemeni kingdoms on the Arabian Peninsula. In the middle of the century Axum was at the height of its power with a splendid court boasting royal elephants and gold. The capital city funneled materials from inner Africa to a maritime network reaching as far as Spain and even China. Axum covered an area of 75 hectares and contained many multistory stone buildings with 10,000 to 20,000 inhabitants and a fringe of suburban, elite villages. (Ref. 270 ) But the downfall of this country started when the Persians expelled the Axumites from south Arabia as a part of the Byzantine-Persian Wars. This was followed by raids by pagan Bela on the farmlands, so that gradually the people moved deeper into the highlands, merging with the pagan and Judaized people there and becoming the Abyssinians proper, the nucleus of later Ethiopia. (Ref. 82 , 83 )

Egypt continued to decay, politically and intellectually. Part of this was promoted by the decline in the incense trade which had previously come from the south, in part through Egypt. The country remained nominally under the control of the Byzantine Empire.

North central and northwest africa

The Vandal kingdom of North Africa was reconquered for the Byzantine Empire by Justinian's General Belisarius in 533. Otherwise North Africa remained much as in the last century. (Ref. 8 )

Subsaharan africa

In the tropical regions the availability of iron after A.D. 500 led to the development of kingdoms whose chief weapons were iron spears. A few Negroid Bantu-speakers filtered into the Bushman and Hottentot domains in South Africa. (Ref. 213 , 83 )

Forward to Africa: A.D. 601 to 700

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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