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+ Branch prediction

+Delayed branch.

  • Multiple streams

- Replicate the initial portions of the pipeline and fetch both possible next instructions

- Increases chance of memory contention

- Must support multiple streams for each instruction in the pipeline

  • Prefetch branch target

- When the branch instruction is decoded, begin to fetch the branch target instruction and place in a second prefetch buffer

- If the branch is not taken, the sequential instructions are already in the pipe, so there is not loss of performance

- If the branch is taken, the next instruction has been prefetched and results in minimal branch penalty (don’t have to incur a memory read operation at the end of the branch to fetch the instruction)

  • Loop buffer: Look ahead, look behind buffer

- Many conditional branches operations are used for loop control

- Expand prefetch buffer so as to buffer the last few instructions executed in addition to the ones that are waiting to be executed

- If buffer is big enough, entire loop can be held in it, this can reduce the branch penalty.

  • Branch prediction

- Make a good guess as to which instruction will be executed next and start that one down the pipeline.

- Static guesses: make the guess without considering the runtime history of the program

Branch never taken

Branch always taken

Predict based on the opcode

- Dynamic guesses: track the history of conditional branches in the program.

Taken / not taken switch History table

Figure 8.3. Branch prediction using 2 history bits

  • Delayed branch

- Minimize the branch penalty by finding valid instructions to execute in the pipeline while the branch address is being resolved.

- It is possible to improve performance by automatically rearranging instruction within a program, so that branch instruction occur later than actually desired

- Compiler is tasked with reordering the instruction sequence to find enough independent instructions (wrt to the conditional branch) to feed into the pipeline after the branch that the branch penalty is reduced to zero

3. superscalar and superpipelined processors

3.1 superpipeline designs

– Observation: a large number of operations do not require the full clock cycle to complete

– High performance can be obtained by subdividing the clock cycle into a number of sub intervals » Higher clock frequency!

– Subdivide the “macro” pipeline H/W stages into smaller (thus faster) substages and clock data through at the higher clock rate

– Time to complete individual instructions does not change

» Degree of parallelism goes up

» Perceived speedup goes up

3.2 superscalar

– Implement the CPU such that more than one instruction can be performed (completed) at a time

– Involves replication of some or all parts of the CPU/ALU

– Examples:

» Fetch multiple instructions at the same time

» Decode multiple instructions at the same time

» Perform add and multiply at the same time

» Perform load/stores while performing ALU operation

– Degree of parallelism and hence the speedup of the machine goes up as more instructions are executed in parallel

  • Data dependencies in superscalar

– It must insure computed results are the same as would be computed on a strictly sequential machine

– Two instructions can not be executed in parallel if the (data) output of one is the input of the other or if they both write to the same output location

– Consider:

S1: A = B + C

S2: D = A + 1

S3: B = E + F

S4: A = E + 3

Resource dependencies:

– In the above sequence of instructions, the adder unit gets a real workout!

– Parallelism is limited by the number of adders in the ALU

3.3 instruction issue policy

Problem: In what order are instructions issued to the execution unit and in what order do they finish?

There is 3 types of ordering.

- The order in which instructions are fetched

- The order in which instructions are executed

- The order in which instructions update the contents of registre or memory location.

  • In-order issue, in-order completion

» Simplest method, but severely limits performance

» Strict ordering of instructions: data and procedural dependencies or resource conflicts delay all subsequent instructions

» Delay execution of some instructions delay all subsequent instructions

  • In-order issue, out-of-order completion

» Any number of instructions can be executed at a time

» Instruction issue is still limited by resource conflicts or data and procedural dependencies

» Output dependencies resulting from out-of order completion must be resolved

» “Instruction” interrupts can be tricky

  • Out-of-order issue, out-of-order completion

» Decode and execute stages are decoupled via an instruction buffer “window”

» Decoded instructions are “stored” in the window awaiting execution

» Functional units will take instructions from the window in an attempt to stay busy

This can result in out-of-order execution

S1: A = B + C

S2: D = E + 1

S3: G = E + F

S4: H = E * 3

“Antidependence” class of data dependencies must be dealt with it.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Computer architecture. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10761/1.1
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