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In general, the time delay d is equivalent to a clock pulse and T m size 12{T rSub { size 8{m} } } {} >>d. Suppose that n instruction are processed with no branched.

  • The total time required T k size 12{T rSub { size 8{k} } } {} to execute all n instruction is:

T k size 12{T rSub { size 8{k} } } {} = [k + (n-1)]

  • The speedup factor for the instruction pipeline compared to execution without the pipeline is defined as:

S K = T 1 T K = nk τ k + ( n 1 ) τ = nk k + ( n 1 ) size 12{ { size 24{S} } rSub { size 8{K} } = { { { size 24{T} } rSub { size 8{1} } } over { { size 24{T} } rSub { size 8{K} } } } = { { ital "nk"τ} over { left [k+ \( n - 1 \) right ]τ} } = { { ital "nk"} over {k+ \( n - 1 \) } } } {}

  • An ideal pipeline divides a task into k independent sequential subtasks

– Each subtask requires 1 time unit to complete

– The task itself then requires k time units tocomplete. For n iterations of the task, the execution times will be:

– With no pipelining: nk time units

– With pipelining: k + (n-1) time units

Speedup of a k-stage pipeline is thus

S = nk / [k+(n-1)] ==>k (for large n)

2.2 pipeline limitations

Several factors serve to limit the pipeline performance. If the six stage are not of equal duration, there will be some waiting involved at various pipeline stage. Another difficulty is the condition branch instruction or the unpredictable event is an interrupt. Other problem arise that the memory conflicts could occur. So the system must contain logic to account for the type of conflict.

  • Pipeline depth

- Data dependencies also factor into the effective length of pipelines

- Logic to handle memory and register use and to control the overall pipeline increases significantly with increasing pipeline depth

– If the speedup is based on the number of stages, why not build lots of stages?

– Each stage uses latches at its input (output) to buffer the next set of inputs

+ If the stage granularity is reduced too much, the latches and their control become a significant hardware overhead

+ Also suffer a time overhead in the propagation time through the latches

- Limits the rate at which data can be clocked through the pipeline

  • Data dependencies

– Pipelining must insure that computed results are the same as if computation was performed in strict sequential order

– With multiple stages, two instructions “in execution” in the pipeline may have data dependencies. So we must design the pipeline to prevent this.

– Data dependency examples:

A = B + C

D = E + A

C = G x H

A = D / H

Data dependencies limit when an instruction can be input to the pipeline.

  • Branching

One of the major problems in designing an instruction pipeline is assuring a steady flow of instructions to initial stages of the pipeline. However, 15-20% of instructions in an assembly-level stream are (conditional) branches. Of these, 60-70% take the branch to a target address. Until the instruction is actually executed, it is impossible to determin whether the branch will be taken or not.

- Impact of the branch is that pipeline never really operates at its full capacity.

– The average time to complete a pipelined instruction becomes

Tave =(1-pb)1 + pb[pt(1+b) + (1-pt)1]

– A number of techniques can be used to minimize the impact of the branch instruction (the branch penalty).

- A several approaches have been taken for dealing with conditional branches:

+ Multiple streams

+ Prefetch branch target

+ Loop buffer

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
with the given example MOV BX,AX describe the sequence that will be followed using instruction state diagram
Gireesh Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Computer architecture. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10761/1.1
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