2.6 Measures of the spread of the data  (Page 4/7)

 Page 4 / 7

• For the following problems, recall that value = mean + (#ofSTDEVs)(standard deviation)
• For a sample: $x$ = $\overline{x}$ + (#ofSTDEVs)(s)
• For a population: $x$ = $\mu$ + (#ofSTDEVs)( $\sigma$ )
• For this example, use $x$ = $\overline{x}$ + (#ofSTDEVs)(s) because the data is from a sample

Find the value that is 1 standard deviation above the mean. Find $\left(\overline{x}+1s\right)$ .

$\left(\overline{x}+1s\right)=10.53+\left(1\right)\left(0.72\right)=11.25$

Find the value that is two standard deviations below the mean. Find $\left(\overline{x}-2s\right)$ .

$\left(\overline{x}-2s\right)=10.53-\left(2\right)\left(0.72\right)=9.09$

Find the values that are 1.5 standard deviations from (below and above) the mean.

• $\left(\overline{x}-1.5s\right)=10.53-\left(1.5\right)\left(0.72\right)=9.45$
• $\left(\overline{x}+1.5s\right)=10.53+\left(1.5\right)\left(0.72\right)=11.61$

Explanation of the standard deviation calculation shown in the table

The deviations show how spread out the data are about the mean. The data value 11.5 is farther from the mean than is the data value 11. The deviations 0.97 and 0.47 indicate that. A positive deviation occurs when the data value is greater than the mean. A negative deviation occurs when the data value is less than the mean; the deviation is -1.525 for the data value 9. If you add the deviations, the sum is always zero . (For this example, there are n=20 deviations.) So you cannot simply add the deviations to get the spread of the data. By squaring the deviations, you make them positive numbers, and the sum will also be positive. The variance, then, is the average squared deviation.

The variance is a squared measure and does not have the same units as the data. Taking the square root solves the problem. The standard deviation measures the spread in the same units as the data.

Notice that instead of dividing by n=20, the calculation divided by n-1=20-1=19 because the data is a sample. For the sample variance, we divide by the sample size minus one ( $\mathrm{n-1}$ ). Why not divide by $n$ ? The answer has to do with the population variance. The sample variance is an estimate of the population variance. Based on the theoretical mathematics that lies behind these calculations, dividing by $\mathrm{\left(n-1\right)}$ gives a better estimate of the population variance.

Your concentration should be on what the standard deviation tells us about the data. The standard deviation is a number which measures how far the data are spread from the mean. Let a calculator or computer do the arithmetic.

The standard deviation, $s$ or $\sigma$ , is either zero or larger than zero. When the standard deviation is 0, there is no spread; that is, the all the data values are equal to each other. The standard deviation is small when the data are all concentrated close to the mean, and is larger when the data values show more variation from the mean. When the standard deviation is a lot larger than zero, the data values are very spread out about the mean; outliers can make $s$ or $\sigma$ very large.

The standard deviation, when first presented, can seem unclear. By graphing your data, you can get a better "feel" for the deviations and the standard deviation. You will find that in symmetrical distributions, the standard deviation can be very helpful but in skewed distributions, the standard deviation may not be much help. The reason is that the two sides of a skewed distribution have different spreads. In a skewed distribution, it is better to look at the first quartile, the median, the third quartile, the smallest value, and the largest value. Because numbers can be confusing, always graph your data .

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!