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Irish immigrants, many of whom were very poor, were more of an underclass than the Germans. In Ireland, the English had oppressed the Irish for centuries, eradicating their language and culture and discriminating against their religion (Catholicism). Although the Irish had a larger population than the English, they were a subordinate group. This dynamic reached into the new world, where Anglo Americans saw Irish immigrants as a race apart: dirty, lacking ambition, and suitable for only the most menial jobs. In fact, Irish immigrants were subject to criticism identical to that with which the dominant group characterized African Americans. By necessity, Irish immigrants formed tight communities segregated from their Anglo neighbors.

The later wave of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe was also subject to intense discrimination and prejudice. In particular, the dominant group—which now included second- and third-generation Germans and Irish—saw Italian immigrants as the dregs of Europe and worried about the purity of the American race (Myers 2007). Italian immigrants lived in segregated slums in Northeastern cities, and in some cases were even victims of violence and lynchings similar to what African Americans endured. They worked harder and were paid less than other workers, often doing the dangerous work that other laborers were reluctant to take on.

Current status

The U.S. Census from 2008 shows that 16.5 percent of respondents reported being of German descent: the largest group in the country. For many years, German Americans endeavored to maintain a strong cultural identity, but they are now culturally assimilated into the dominant culture.

There are now more Irish Americans in the United States than there are Irish in Ireland. One of the country’s largest cultural groups, Irish Americans have slowly achieved acceptance and assimilation into the dominant group.

Myers (2007) states that Italian Americans’ cultural assimilation is “almost complete, but with remnants of ethnicity.” The presence of “Little Italy” neighborhoods—originally segregated slums where Italians congregated in the nineteenth century—exist today. While tourists flock to the saints’ festivals in Little Italies, most Italian Americans have moved to the suburbs at the same rate as other white groups.

Summary

The history of the U.S. people contains an infinite variety of experiences that sociologist understand follow patterns. From the indigenous people who first inhabited these lands to the waves of immigrants over the past 500 years, migration is an experience with many shared characteristics. Most groups have experienced various degrees of prejudice and discrimination as they have gone through the process of assimilation.

Short answer

In your opinion, which group had the easiest time coming to this country? Which group had the hardest time? Why?

Which group has made the most socioeconomic gains? Why do you think that group has had more success than others?

Further research

Are people interested in reclaiming their ethnic identities? Read this article and decide:

The White Ethnic Revival: (External Link)

What is the current racial composition of the United States? Review up-to-the minute statistics at the United States Census Bureau here: (External Link)

References

ACLU. 2011. “Appellate Court Upholds Decision Blocking Arizona’s Extreme Racial Profiling Law.” American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved December 8, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Greely, Andrew M. 1972. That Most Distressful Nation: The Taming of the American Irish . Chicago: Quadrangle Books.

Lewy, Guenter. 2004. "Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide?" Retrieved December 6, 2011 (http://hnn.us/articles/7302.html).

Marger, Martin. 2003. Race and Ethnic Relations: American and Global Perspectives . Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

American Indian Cultural Support. “Mascots: Racism in Schools by State.” 2005. Retrieved December 8, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Massey, Douglas S. 2006. “Seeing Mexican Immigration Clearly.” Cato Unbound . Retrieved December 4, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Myers, John P. 2007. Dominant-Minority Relations in America . Boston: Pearson.

National Congress of American Indians. 2005. “The National Congress of American Indians Resolution #TUL-05-087: Support for NCAA Ban on ‘Indian’ Mascots.” Retrieved December 8, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Senate Bill 1070. 2010. State of Arizona. Retrieved December 8, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Tatz, Colin. 2006. "Confronting Australian Genocide." Pp. 125-140 in The Indigenous Experience: Global Perspectives . Edited by Roger Maaka and Chris Andersen. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Scholars'.

U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. “State and County Quickfacts.” Retrieved February 22, 2012 ( (External Link) ).

U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2010. “Persons Obtaining Legal Permanent Resident Status by Region and Selected Country of Last Residence: Fiscal Years 1820 to 2010.” Yearbook of Immigration Statistics . Retrieved December 6, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Vigdor, Jacob L. 2008. “Measuring Immigrant Assimilation in the United States.” Manhattan Institute for Policy Research Civic Report 53. Retrieved December 4, 2011 ( (External Link) ).

Questions & Answers

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RAW Reply
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Damian
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Professor
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industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
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scanning tunneling microscope
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write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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