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Back to America: 3000 to 1500 B.C.

North america

The far north and canada

The Arctic Small Tool tradition continued across northern Canada to Greenland and the Pacific coast Indians continued their salmon fishing, without attempting cultivation. By 1,000 B.C. they were building villages along the Snake, Columbia and Fraser rivers south of the Snake, there were large oval dwellings with floors and a timber frame, usually about twenty-five by thirty feet. (Ref. 209 )

The united states

The Indians of North America originally had lived by hunting game and gathering wild foods, but about 3,000 years ago they began making clay vessels, an innovation that accompanied the appearance of agriculture in many areas. The pottery found in various excavation sites in the United States has a distinctive gritty temper and is often decorated with fabric or cord impressions. One village, called the Baumer site, in southern Illinois, covered more than ten acres and was made up of houses about sixteen feet square. The use of local strains of corn, beans and squash after 1,500 B.C. gave people the surplus of food and time needed to engage in some communal activities. The first signs of mound building appeared in the middle west about 1,000 B.C. as some villages began to bury their dead under low earth mounds. In the southwest the Cochise continued their gradual transition from hunter-gatherers to true farmers. (Ref. 215 , 210 )

Mexico, central america and the caribbean

Village life in Mexico continued to show more advanced societies. In the Oaxaca Valley there were villages with agriculture dominant by 1,300 B.C. Each village contained ten to twenty houses which were single family units made of wattle and daub, all opening into a common plaza. By 1,200 in San Jose Mogote in the same valley, the people began to build large platforms with limed walls and floors. (Ref. 45 , 209 ) Recent excavations at Dzibilchaltun in northern Yucatan indicate that this site, which contained one of the largest of the Mayan cities of the late post-classic period of A.D.600 or later, had been continuously occupied since 1,500 B.C., so that in all probability pre-Mayan or Mayan people lived there with an ever increasing level of civilization for over 2,000 years.

The big story of this period, however, is that of the Olmecs who had developed a civilization in the humid, low-lying, forest region of southern Veracruz and western Tabasco by 1,200 B.C. Most authorities agree (with a few dissenters) that this remarkable society appeared suddenly , without known antecedents. They were the first Meso-Americans to handle large masses of stone in monumental sculptures and they may have been responsible for extending the growth of maize in that area, chiefly by example or leadership, as they were not the basic inhabitants of the region. The latter were ethnically Huastec while the Olmecs were apparently an hereditary ruling class who promoted efficient farming techniques, long distance trade net-works, large temples and public buildings, fine art, an official state religion and social stratification. The question of pre-Columbian contacts with America has been brought up time and again, particularly regarding this advanced, suddenly appearing Olmec civilization, but the nature and method of such contact and whether or not it occurred at all, continues to be debated.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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