<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Section summary

  • Laminar flow is characterized by smooth flow of the fluid in layers that do not mix.
  • Turbulence is characterized by eddies and swirls that mix layers of fluid together.
  • Fluid viscosity η size 12{η} {} is due to friction within a fluid. Representative values are given in [link] . Viscosity has units of ( N/m 2 ) s size 12{ \( "N/m" rSup { size 8{2} } \) s} {} or Pa s size 12{"Pa" cdot s} {} .
  • Flow is proportional to pressure difference and inversely proportional to resistance:
    Q = P 2 P 1 R . size 12{Q= { {P rSub { size 8{2} } - P rSub { size 8{1} } } over {R} } } {}
  • For laminar flow in a tube, Poiseuille’s law for resistance states that
    R = 8 η l πr 4 . size 12{R= { {8ηl} over {πr rSup { size 8{4} } } } } {}
  • Poiseuille’s law for flow in a tube is
    Q = ( P 2 P 1 ) π r 4 8 η l . size 12{Q= { { \( P rSub { size 8{2} } - P rSub { size 8{1} } \) π`r rSup { size 8{4} } } over {8ηl} } } {}
  • The pressure drop caused by flow and resistance is given by
    P 2 P 1 = R Q . size 12{P rSub { size 8{2} } - P rSub { size 8{1} } =R`Q} {}

Conceptual questions

Explain why the viscosity of a liquid decreases with temperature—that is, how might increased temperature reduce the effects of cohesive forces in a liquid? Also explain why the viscosity of a gas increases with temperature—that is, how does increased gas temperature create more collisions between atoms and molecules?

When paddling a canoe upstream, it is wisest to travel as near to the shore as possible. When canoeing downstream, it may be best to stay near the middle. Explain why.

Why does flow decrease in your shower when someone flushes the toilet?

Plumbing usually includes air-filled tubes near water faucets, as shown in [link] . Explain why they are needed and how they work.

The picture shows water gushing out of a water tap. The faucet in the tap is marked. A pipe connected vertically filled with air is shown at an opening on the water pipe before the tap.
The vertical tube near the water tap remains full of air and serves a useful purpose.


(a) Calculate the retarding force due to the viscosity of the air layer between a cart and a level air track given the following information—air temperature is 20º C size 12{"20" rSup { size 8{ circ } } C} {} , the cart is moving at 0.400 m/s, its surface area is 2 . 50 × 10 −2 m 2 size 12{2 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{2} } `m rSup { size 8{2} } } {} , and the thickness of the air layer is 6.00 × 10 5 m size 12{6 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } `m} {} . (b) What is the ratio of this force to the weight of the 0.300-kg cart?

(a) 3 . 02 × 10 3 N size 12{3 "." "02" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " N"} {}

(b) 1 . 03 × 10 3 size 12{1 "." "03" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {}

What force is needed to pull one microscope slide over another at a speed of 1.00 cm/s, if there is a 0.500-mm-thick layer of 20º C size 12{"20" rSup { size 12{ circ } } C} {} water between them and the contact area is 8.00 cm 2 size 12{8 "." "00"`"cm" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} ?

A glucose solution being administered with an IV has a flow rate of 4 . 00 cm 3 /min size 12{4 "." "00"`"cm" rSup { size 8{3} } "/min"} {} . What will the new flow rate be if the glucose is replaced by whole blood having the same density but a viscosity 2.50 times that of the glucose? All other factors remain constant.

1 . 60 cm 3 /min size 12{1 "." "60 cm" rSup { size 8{3} } "/min"} {}

The pressure drop along a length of artery is 100 Pa, the radius is 10 mm, and the flow is laminar. The average speed of the blood is 15 mm/s. (a) What is the net force on the blood in this section of artery? (b) What is the power expended maintaining the flow?

A small artery has a length of 1 . 1 × 10 3 m size 12{1 "." 1 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } `m} {} and a radius of 2.5 × 10 5 m size 12{2 "." 5 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 5} } `m} {} . If the pressure drop across the artery is 1.3 kPa, what is the flow rate through the artery? (Assume that the temperature is 37º C size 12{"37"°C} {} .)

8.7 × 10 11 m 3 /s size 12{8 "." 7 times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } `m rSup { size 8{3} } "/s"} {}

Fluid originally flows through a tube at a rate of 100 cm 3 /s size 12{"100"`"cm" rSup { size 8{3} } "/s"} {} . To illustrate the sensitivity of flow rate to various factors, calculate the new flow rate for the following changes with all other factors remaining the same as in the original conditions. (a) Pressure difference increases by a factor of 1.50. (b) A new fluid with 3.00 times greater viscosity is substituted. (c) The tube is replaced by one having 4.00 times the length. (d) Another tube is used with a radius 0.100 times the original. (e) Yet another tube is substituted with a radius 0.100 times the original and half the length, and the pressure difference is increased by a factor of 1.50.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply
Practice Key Terms 5

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now

Source:  OpenStax, College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas). OpenStax CNX. May 08, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11649/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'College physics (engineering physics 2, tuas)' conversation and receive update notifications?