<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >
The Asia-Pacific Network Information Center, which comprises the fast growing countries India and China was the first RIR to exhaust its allocation of IPv4 addresses on 15th April 2011.Thus it was the first RIR to receive the new block of IPv6 address.

June 6, Wednesday, 2012 was theWorld IPv6 Day<h3>Internet , a trillion times roomier now.

[The Hindu,Thursday, June 7,2012]

Till now we have had IPv4 which allocated 32-bit integer for addresses which permitted 4.3 billion addresses.The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority(IANA) distributes the available internet protocol addresses to the five regional information registries(RIR).The Asia-Pacific Network Information Center, which comprises the fast growing countries India and China was the first RIR to exhaust its allocation of IPv4 addresses on 15 th April 2011.Thus it was the first RIR to receive the new block of IPv6 address.

In IPv6 protocol, successor to the IPv4 protocol, there is 128-bit integer addresses to be assigned to hosts or the systems. 128-bit addresses permits 2^128 addresses which amounts to 340 trillion, trillion, trillion=3.4×10 38 addresses. This is more than enough for all the new devices which are likely to be connected to the INTERNET in next five years.

IPv6 protocol requires upgraded infrastructure to operate. In phases IPv4 will be eased out and IPv6 will be accordingly introduced so that the whole process is seamless.

Challenges of Video and Mobile access in INTERNET

[Excerpted from the article “The NET was not built keeping Video and Mobile Access in mind”, The Economic Times, Monday, 27 th August, 2012, Kolkota edition]

Tom Leighton is the co-founder and chief scientist at Akamai Technologies and he is also a MIT Professor in Computer Science Department.

$1.1 billion servers of Akamai Technologies carry about a third of World’s Web Service and its customers include White House, Facebook, Apple, Twitter, Auch India Infoline and Shopper’s Stop.The following information has been taken from his interview.

Right now in August 2012 there are 35-billion connected devices . This will become 1 trillion in next few years.

Our total population is 7billion as of today. As Internet is penetrating the hinterlands of undeveloped economies, internet connections are exponentially increasing. Also the number of devices per person is increasing The number of devices per person will touch a factor of 10 by 2017.

There is a diversification in the devices. It could be smart phones, tablets or desktops. There is a diversification in their working. Some have CDMA, others are GSM. There is a diversification in their Operating Systems. Some have Android. Apple has its own propriety OS and MicroSoft has its own propriety OS. There is diversification in the formats of Video and Audio transmission such as JPEG, PNG,GIF and TIFF. In audio we have MPEG, Digital Theater System(DTS), Windows Media Audio.

These diversifications create a huge stress on the INTERNET for which INTERNET is not prepared.

Even though Mobile Cellular Net is becoming better , faster and cheaper still it takes very long to get a video download or to get webpage open on cell phones.

Internet is not built for Video Transmissions nor for mobile access. It is not prepared for Social Networking which has come in a big way. This creates network management problems.

On the Internet every different device costs money. The last mile BW is not the same for different devices. Different formats have to be coded/decoded differently. Every added users adds cost.

To remove this cumulative cost build up, we have to bring the diversified messages on a common platform, process it, transmit it, reprocess it and then serve it to the end users at the right bit rates. Algorithm has to be written for these diversified tasks and embedded in the common platform that works for all kinds of devices, across all the formats and across different Band Widths.

Security is the biggest problem and we have to make sure that credit card information are not stolen.

Cellular Phone networks are built for Voice BW in the range 8 to 16 kb/sec. A typical Webpage 100kB. This cannot open the webpage fast. Our goal is instant access on cellular devices. Traditional Internet infrastructure is not capable of handling Video.

In India we want high speed and low cost.

Using applied Maths and Algorithms we are improving the efficiency of our servers. We are also working on the next generation delivery so that most bits come from the Internet and not from our computer.

It is only after these issues are addressed and resolved that we will have a seamless convergence of Video, Audio and Data on the INERNET.,

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11170/1.89
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Solid state physics and devices-the harbinger of third wave of civilization' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask