Think about using a wrench to tighten a bolt. The torque
$\tau $ applied to the bolt depends on how hard we push the wrench (force) and how far up the handle we apply the force (distance). The torque increases with a greater force on the wrench at a greater distance from the bolt. Common units of torque are the newton-meter or foot-pound. Although torque is dimensionally equivalent to work (it has the same units), the two concepts are distinct. Torque is used specifically in the context of rotation, whereas work typically involves motion along a line.
Evaluating torque
A bolt is tightened by applying a force of
$6$ N to a 0.15-m wrench (
[link] ). The angle between the wrench and the force vector is
$40\text{\xb0}.$ Find the magnitude of the torque about the center of the bolt. Round the answer to two decimal places.
Substitute the given information into the equation defining torque:
The cross product
$\text{u}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}$ of two vectors
$\text{u}=\u27e8{u}_{1},{u}_{2},{u}_{3}\u27e9$ and
$\text{v}=\u27e8{v}_{1},{v}_{2},{v}_{3}\u27e9$ is a vector orthogonal to both
$\text{u}$ and
$\text{v}.$ Its length is given by
$\Vert \text{u}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}\Vert =\Vert \text{u}\Vert \xb7\Vert \text{v}\Vert \xb7\text{sin}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\theta ,$ where
$\theta $ is the angle between
$\text{u}$ and
$\text{v}.$ Its direction is given by the right-hand rule.
The algebraic formula for calculating the cross product of two vectors,
$\text{u}=\u27e8{u}_{1},{u}_{2},{u}_{3}\u27e9\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}=\u27e8{v}_{1},{v}_{2},{v}_{3}\u27e9,$ is
$\text{u}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}=\left({u}_{2}{v}_{3}-{u}_{3}{v}_{2}\right)\text{i}-\left({u}_{1}{v}_{3}-{u}_{3}{v}_{1}\right)\text{j}+\left({u}_{1}{v}_{2}-{u}_{2}{v}_{1}\right)\text{k}.$
The cross product satisfies the following properties for vectors
$\text{u},\text{v},\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{w},$ and scalar
$c\text{:}$
The cross product of vectors
$\text{u}=\u27e8{u}_{1},{u}_{2},{u}_{3}\u27e9$ and
$\text{v}=\u27e8{v}_{1},{v}_{2},{v}_{3}\u27e9$ is the determinant
$\left|\begin{array}{ccc}\text{i}\hfill & \text{j}\hfill & \text{k}\hfill \\ {u}_{1}\hfill & {u}_{2}\hfill & {u}_{3}\hfill \\ {v}_{1}\hfill & {v}_{2}\hfill & {v}_{3}\hfill \end{array}\right|.$
If vectors
$\text{u}$ and
$\text{v}$ form adjacent sides of a parallelogram, then the area of the parallelogram is given by
$\Vert \text{u}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}\Vert .$
The triple scalar product of vectors
$\text{u},$$\text{v},$ and
$\text{w}$ is
$\text{u}\xb7\left(\text{v}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{w}\right).$
The volume of a parallelepiped with adjacent edges given by vectors
$\text{u},\text{v},\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{w}$ is
$V=\left|\text{u}\xb7\left(\text{v}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{w}\right)\right|.$
If the triple scalar product of vectors
$\text{u},\text{v},\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{and}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{w}$ is zero, then the vectors are coplanar. The converse is also true: If the vectors are coplanar, then their triple scalar product is zero.
The cross product can be used to identify a vector orthogonal to two given vectors or to a plane.
Torque
$\tau $ measures the tendency of a force to produce rotation about an axis of rotation. If force
$\text{F}$ is acting at a distance
$\text{r}$ from the axis, then torque is equal to the cross product of
$\text{r}$ and
$\text{F}\text{:}$$\tau =\text{r}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{F}.$
Key equations
The cross product of two vectors in terms of the unit vectors $\text{u}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}=({u}_{2}{v}_{3}-{u}_{3}{v}_{2})\text{i}-({u}_{1}{v}_{3}-{u}_{3}{v}_{1})\text{j}+({u}_{1}{v}_{2}-{u}_{2}{v}_{1})\text{k}$
For the following exercises, the vectors
$\text{u}$ and
$\text{v}$ are given.
Find the cross product
$\text{u}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}$ of the vectors
$\text{u}$ and
$\text{v}.$ Express the answer in component form.
Sketch the vectors
$\text{u},\text{v},$ and
$\text{u}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}.$
In the following exercises, vectors
$\text{u}$ and
$\text{v}$ are given. Find unit vector
$\text{w}$ in the direction of the cross product vector
$\text{u}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\times \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{v}.$ Express your answer using standard unit vectors.
Questions & Answers
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest.
Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.?
How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.?
what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done
Rafiq
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
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can you provide the details of the parametric equations for the lines that defince doubly-ruled surfeces (huperbolids of one sheet and hyperbolic paraboloid). Can you explain each of the variables in the equations?