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In the lower Mississippi region in 1713 St. Denis, from French Biloxi, settled Natchitoches as the oldest city in Louisiana. Near there were a series of small Indian states, including the famous Natchez, perhaps the last inheritors of the Mound-building tradition. There were perhaps 4,000 Natchez people left at the beginning of this century, living in 7 villages clustered near the present city of Natchez. Their social structure included a chief, the Great Sun and his relatives, known as Little Suns. A step below were nobles, then groups of Honored Men, a class achievable by anyone through distinguished action in war or religious devotion and finally the Commoners or Stinkards. Each Sun and Noble, however, had to marry a Stinkard, so there was a constant social turnover. These Indians attacked French Louisiana colonies in 1729, killing 200 and taking women, children and black slaves as prisoners. When they revolted against the French again in 1734, however, within a few years almost none remained alive. The French commanders disposed of a thousand captives in the West Indies. (Ref. 215 , 267 )

Throughout the century whenever England and France were threatening each other or at war in Europe, the Canadian French made sporadic raids on the frontiers of New England and vice versa. At the end of the 1740s the French took an expedition down the Ohio River and buried lead plates to mark their territorial possessions. Then in 1754 they destroyed a rude English fort at the crucial spot where the Monongahela and Allegheny rivers meet (near present Pittsburg) and built their own Fort Duquesne. At 21 years of age George Washington had his first taste of battle against the French as they moved out of that fort in 1755 at the opening of the true French and Indian War. General Braddock and his English forces were badly defeated by the French and their 1,000 Indian allies.

The victory brought almost all the Indians of the old "northwest" to the French side. This was the American aspect of the Seven Years War but it was a frontier war, strange to the British and they suffered atrociously in the mountains and forests from Indian guerrillas and in the pitched battles they were out-maneuvered. Af ter six years the English did take Quebec and Montreal and the fighting ended. In the Treaty of Paris, three years later, Canada and the whole empire of France in the interior United States were transferred to England. We have noted previously that in the same treaty Florida was taken from Spain, who had come in too late and on the wrong side. The Spanish did acquire La Salle's vast, vague region of Louisiana, however, from the French. (Ref. 39 )

The Old Northwest was the territory about the Great Lakes and between the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. By 1750 the Shawnees of that area were divided into five semi-autonomous political units or bands, each occupying a special place within the tribal confederacy. The Thawegila and Chalahgawtha bands supplied the leaders for the entire tribe, but all the bands took an active part in the French and Indian Wars, most of them supporting the French. Some of them fought beside Captain Daniel de Beaujeu as they cut the British column to pieces in the battle near Fort Duquense. During the next 4 years they joined bands of Delawares to raid the English frontier in Pennsylvania and Virginia. After the fall of Quebec, however, most Shawnees withdrew from the warfare, at least for the moment. The Treaty of 1763 did not give absolute peace on the frontier. In that very year Chief Pontiac of the Ottawas along with some Wyandots, Potawatamis and Ojibwas, attacked and then besieged the fort at Detroit from May until November

This was to be known as Pontiac's Rebellion or Pontiac's Conspiracy. (Ref. 38 )
. Inspired by that, the Shawnees again attacked into eastern Ohio and West Virginia, killing settlers and burning farms. They sent runners as far west as Illinois, urging the tribes of the Wabash Valley to attack British forts and traders. Actually the Shawnee anger was directed at the "Virginians" - those whites trying to occupy Kentucky. (Ref. 293 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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