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America

Back to America: A.D. 1601 to 1700

North america

Canada and the far north

When Vitus Bering found the strait which bears his name he also explored the Aleutian chain of islands and the Alaska shores, living on sea otters and starting a new fur trade. By 1745 ruthless Russian hunters were established on Attu Island, where they killed all male Aleuts and took their women. Later, however, they found that they had to keep Aleut males to help them hunt the otters in their ulluxtadags (similar to Eskimo kayaks) with harpoons and they then merged and lived together with the Aleuts. In 1784 Grigorii Shelekhov established a settlement on Kodiak Island and founded what became the Russian-American Company. They obtained otter and seal pelts, using 7,200 Aleuts to hunt full-time and taking 300 others as hostages to ensure work from the first group. This broke up the Aleut families and then disease appeared, so that in the two generations at the end of the century, the Aleut population fell by nearly two-thirds. (Ref. 234 , 199 ) Shelekhov was followed by Alexander Baranov, who greeted British ships and found English, American and even a few Spanish skippers had been trading for furs some 1,100 miles south. In 1799 he sailed along the shore with 450 two-man kayaks to establish a colony on Baranov Island, just 6 miles above a Tlingits Indian stronghold at what is now Sitka, Alaska. Those Tlingits had inhabited the lower coastal area of the Alaskan panhandle for a long period and had a high culture, living in gabled lodges housing a dozen families and producing canoes holding 60 men. One of their better known features were their 50 feet tall totem poles. North of the Tlingits were the Eskimoes along the Arctic shoreline living, as the Aleuts on the islands, by hunting chiefly seals and walruses. In central Alaska were the Athabascan Indians, bearing no cultural resemblance to the coastal people. They are linguistic cousins of the Apaches and Navajos and lived in small nomadic bands in bare simplicity, existing chiefly on the caribou. They did create the snow-shoe to facilitate getting about in deep snow. (Ref. 234 ) Additional Notes

By 1745 when the Russians were already well established in the Aleutians, the English had only a handful of isolated trading posts west of Hudson Bay. (Ref. 8 ) On the west coast of Canada, Don Juan Francisco de la Bodega sailed the "Sonora" beyond the 56th degree latitude and examined the coast belonging to Russia,- which is now the upper of British Columbia. Then in 1778 while Captain Cook was sailing up the coast to reach the Aleutians, he incidentally discovered Nootka sound on Vancouver Island. Spanish historians claim, however, that Juan Perez had discovered this sound previously in 1774.

On the Atlantic side, in 1711 Britain attempted to take French Quebec and Canada, by sending seven regiments of Marlborough's best, along with 1,500 colonials into the St. Lawrence. Ten of their ships were sunk and the expedition f ailed. The war in Europe ended 2 years later, however, and France's position in southeastern Canada was greatly weakened by the Treaty of Utrecht, which terminated the War of the Spanish Succession, or Queen Anne's war, as it was called in America. (Ref. 222 ) France lost Newfoundland,

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
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Missy Reply
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Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
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Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
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Google
da
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Bhagvanji
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Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
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Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
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Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
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LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
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LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
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Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
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Mahi
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Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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