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America

Back to America: A.D. 1501 to 1600

North america (see map in next module)

In the early 17th century northern Europeans, already experienced in smuggling and raiding Spanish-American shipping, began to establish permanent colonies of their own in America. The north Europeans ' advantages included their access to the sources of shipbuilding material (particularly around the Baltic), fewer political commitments and diversification of European interests and finally more sophisticated devices for obtaining capital and spreading risks - the chartered joint-stock company. (Ref. 8 )

Canada and the far north

The Thule Arctic Culture, which has been discussed in several previous chapters, is generally conceded to have ended about 1700, merging into the Modern Eskimo Culture. Samuel Champlain was sent out to Canada from France in 1603 to map the known rivers. Establishing Quebec as a base, he explored Lakes Huron and Ontario and sided with the Algonquin and Huron Indians, while defeating the hostile Iroquois. The Jesuit priest, Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix, who wrote a Histoire de'la Nouvelle France in the 18th century, accumulated much information about the French-Iroquois war of 1610. He told of terrible atrocities committed by the Hurons on the Iroquois prisoners, including cannibalism

This information is found in de Tocqueville (Ref. 218 ), pages 337 and 338).
. Champlain was the most versatile of colonial founders, a sailor, soldier, scholar and man of action, artist and explorer. (Ref. 151 ) The friendly Hurons became the middlemen for the fur trade between Montreal and the Indian trappers of the Great Lakes areas. Nova Scotia was founded as the French colony of Acadia in 1632. (Ref. 222 )

At the death of Champlain in 1635 Canada was the property of a joint-stock company, the Hundred Associates. Settlement advanced very slowly, however, and by 1643, a year after a stronghold had been built at Montreal, there were not 300 Frenchmen in all New France, exclusive of Nova Scotia. Even by 1665 Quebec contained only 70 houses and 550 people. The French fur traders, however, soon carried their commerce 2,000 miles inland to the Tetons. They could live on the barest vegetation and in the crudest shelter, in terrible weather. It was those French guides who later staffed the Lewis and Clark expedition. (Ref. 151 , 39 ) In 1685 the governor of Canada wrote to Louis XIV complaining that the colonial French had not civilized the Indians, but on the contrary, the Frenchmen who lived among the savages themselves became savages. (Ref. 217 )

Throughout the entire first 2/3 of the century New France had to continually fight the Five Nations of the Iroquois League and largely because of this the Hundred Associates gave up in 1663 and surrendered their charter, allowing Canada to become a crown colony of Louis XIV. In 1665 the Marquis de Tracy arrived with 800 soldiers to wage a total war campaign against the Iroquois, killing and burning their fields and villages. (Ref. 39 ) The new military regime was absolute, with severe laws stringently enforced by torture, when necessary. The Marquis' chief claim to fame is that he brought girls along to be the soldiers' wives and these, along with a few descendants of extraneous unions of coureurs de bois with young Indian girls, are primarily the ancestors of all present day French-Canadians.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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