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Demonstrates the results of our vowel detection method

Our project produced largely successful results. We achieved flawless output for a variety of two syllable words that, as a whole, contained all of our database vowels. We were also successful with some three and four syllable words.

Result table
Input Output
Biblioteca CiCiCoCeCaC
Loteria CoCeuCiCaC
Mexico CeCiCoC
Santiago CaCiCaCoC
Santa Fe CaCa CeC
Cabo CaCoC
Dime CiCeC
Tito CiCoC
Papi CaCiC
Arturo CaCuCoC
Alejandro CaoCeCaCoC
Dame una camisa CaCe CiuCa CaCiCaC
Me gusta Rich B Ce CuCa CiCiC

C represents a string of 1, 2, or more non-vowels and a,e,i,o,and u are the actual vowels detected. Also, "Me gusta Rich B" had to be parsed together.
  • 'Biblioteca'and'Santiago'demonstrate superfluous consonant placement between vowels.
  • 'Una'illustrates difficulty in vowel detection because the second formant in the vowel sound was not present.
  • 'Loteria'and'Alejandro'demonstrate the errors caused by'R'and'L'respectively.

Problems

  • A relatively minor problem we encountered was the placement of consonants at the beginning and end of word, regardless of the beginning or ending sound being a consonant or vowel. A good example is the word Arturo, which begins and ends with a vowel sound, though our program returns a consonant at beginning and end. This is because of the dead space that is inherent at the start and end of file, due to the delay between recording beginning and the speech sample starting (and similarly at the end). The simplest way we could have amended this would have been to manually crop the files, so that no dead space was found.
  • Occasionally our vocal tract model did not sufficiently emphasize the second formant in'I'at a frequency far enough away from the third for there to be a peak at the frequency value we associated with the second one. As a result, the third formant was sometimes detected as the second. We never got this problem ironed out, and it caused confusion between I's and U's in our filter. A possible method of correcting this would be to apply a differentiator to adjacent frequency values of our frequency response. When the difference levels off or goes negative with a sufficiently high magnitude value, we could add that point as a formant peak. In the image below, one can visually tell that there is likely a peak around 1950 Hz, but there is no expressed peak, so our detection program passed over it.
    Example of loss of 2nd formant in Vowel 'I'
  • · L's and R's were occasionally detected as vowels. This is due to the fact that the pronunciation of them is little different from that of vowels; they primarily rely on resonant frequencies from the vocal tract rather than restriction of airflow as other consonants. Below are some frequency responses of the vocal tract as L's and R's were being pronounced. As you can tell, they are highly similar to the frequency response of the vocal tract when vowels are being produced. Without drastically changing the focus of our project, the only method to amend this would be to have more intricate threshold values.
    Consonant 'L' Vocal Model
    Consonant 'R' Vocal Model
  • · Often in direct transition from vowel to vowel with no consonant between, a consonant value was returned between the two vowels. This can be seen below in the three images showing the transition from the second I in biblioteca to the'O'. The first image is the'I', the third is the'O', and the second is the transition between them. The transitional frequency response is not sufficiently similar to either the'I'or'O', so it gets classified as a consonant. Currently anything that does not match one of our five vowels gets classified as a consonant. A possible means of circumventing this would be to add a transitional character to our database, in this case and'IO'database character. Or we could have direct consonant recognition (a broad class, not specific consonants) and then classify vowels that don't match our database as unknowns, rather than just pooling them with consonants.<i-bib.fig>,<between.fig>,<o-bib.fig>
    Second 'I' in Biblioteca
    Transition between vowels
    'O' in Biblioteca

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ece 301 projects fall 2003. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10223/1.5
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