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Demonstrates the results of our vowel detection method

Our project produced largely successful results. We achieved flawless output for a variety of two syllable words that, as a whole, contained all of our database vowels. We were also successful with some three and four syllable words.

Result table
Input Output
Biblioteca CiCiCoCeCaC
Loteria CoCeuCiCaC
Mexico CeCiCoC
Santiago CaCiCaCoC
Santa Fe CaCa CeC
Cabo CaCoC
Dime CiCeC
Tito CiCoC
Papi CaCiC
Arturo CaCuCoC
Alejandro CaoCeCaCoC
Dame una camisa CaCe CiuCa CaCiCaC
Me gusta Rich B Ce CuCa CiCiC

C represents a string of 1, 2, or more non-vowels and a,e,i,o,and u are the actual vowels detected. Also, "Me gusta Rich B" had to be parsed together.
  • 'Biblioteca'and'Santiago'demonstrate superfluous consonant placement between vowels.
  • 'Una'illustrates difficulty in vowel detection because the second formant in the vowel sound was not present.
  • 'Loteria'and'Alejandro'demonstrate the errors caused by'R'and'L'respectively.

Problems

  • A relatively minor problem we encountered was the placement of consonants at the beginning and end of word, regardless of the beginning or ending sound being a consonant or vowel. A good example is the word Arturo, which begins and ends with a vowel sound, though our program returns a consonant at beginning and end. This is because of the dead space that is inherent at the start and end of file, due to the delay between recording beginning and the speech sample starting (and similarly at the end). The simplest way we could have amended this would have been to manually crop the files, so that no dead space was found.
  • Occasionally our vocal tract model did not sufficiently emphasize the second formant in'I'at a frequency far enough away from the third for there to be a peak at the frequency value we associated with the second one. As a result, the third formant was sometimes detected as the second. We never got this problem ironed out, and it caused confusion between I's and U's in our filter. A possible method of correcting this would be to apply a differentiator to adjacent frequency values of our frequency response. When the difference levels off or goes negative with a sufficiently high magnitude value, we could add that point as a formant peak. In the image below, one can visually tell that there is likely a peak around 1950 Hz, but there is no expressed peak, so our detection program passed over it.
    Example of loss of 2nd formant in Vowel 'I'
  • · L's and R's were occasionally detected as vowels. This is due to the fact that the pronunciation of them is little different from that of vowels; they primarily rely on resonant frequencies from the vocal tract rather than restriction of airflow as other consonants. Below are some frequency responses of the vocal tract as L's and R's were being pronounced. As you can tell, they are highly similar to the frequency response of the vocal tract when vowels are being produced. Without drastically changing the focus of our project, the only method to amend this would be to have more intricate threshold values.
    Consonant 'L' Vocal Model
    Consonant 'R' Vocal Model
  • · Often in direct transition from vowel to vowel with no consonant between, a consonant value was returned between the two vowels. This can be seen below in the three images showing the transition from the second I in biblioteca to the'O'. The first image is the'I', the third is the'O', and the second is the transition between them. The transitional frequency response is not sufficiently similar to either the'I'or'O', so it gets classified as a consonant. Currently anything that does not match one of our five vowels gets classified as a consonant. A possible means of circumventing this would be to add a transitional character to our database, in this case and'IO'database character. Or we could have direct consonant recognition (a broad class, not specific consonants) and then classify vowels that don't match our database as unknowns, rather than just pooling them with consonants.<i-bib.fig>,<between.fig>,<o-bib.fig>
    Second 'I' in Biblioteca
    Transition between vowels
    'O' in Biblioteca

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, Ece 301 projects fall 2003. OpenStax CNX. Jan 22, 2004 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10223/1.5
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