# 2.3 Pointers and arrays  (Page 8/8)

 Page 8 / 8

here is the sample session with the above program

```Enter the number of elements: : 5 Enter the value of m[0]: 34 Enter the value of m[1]: 20 Enter the value of m[2]: 17 Enter the value of m[3]: 65 Enter the value of m[4]: 21 The array before sorting: 34 20 17 65 21The array after step 1: 17 34 20 65 21 The array after step 2: 17 20 34 65 21The array after step 3: 17 20 21 65 34 The array after step 4: 17 20 21 34 65```

## Pointers vs arrays

Pointers occur in many C programs as references to arrays , and also as elements of arrays. A pointer to an array type is called an array pointer for short, and an array whose elements are pointers is called a pointer array.

## Array pointers

For the sake of example, the following description deals with an array of int. The same principles apply for any other array type, including multidimensional arrays.

To declare a pointer to an array type, you must use parentheses, as the following example illustrates:

`int (* arrPtr)[10] = NULL; // A pointer to an array of// ten elements with type int.`

Without the parentheses, the declaration int * arrPtr[10]; would define arrPtr as an array of 10 pointers to int. Arrays of pointers are described in the next section.

In the example, the pointer to an array of 10 int elements is initialized with NULL. However, if we assign it the address of an appropriate array, then the expression *arrPtr yields the array, and (*arrPtr)[i] yields the array element with the index i. According to the rules for the subscript operator, the expression (*arrPtr)[i]is equivalent to *((*arrPtr)+i). Hence **arrPtr yields the first element of the array, with the index 0.

In order to demonstrate a few operations with the array pointer arrPtr, the following example uses it to address some elements of a two-dimensional array that is, some rows of a matrix:

```int matrix[3][10]; // Array of three rows, each with 10 columns. // The array name is a pointer to the first// element; i.e., the first row. arrPtr = matrix; // Let arrPtr point to the first row of// the matrix. (*arrPtr)[0]= 5; // Assign the value 5 to the first element of the // first row.// arrPtr[2][9] = 6; // Assign the value 6 to the last element of the// last row. //++arrPtr; // Advance the pointer to the next row. (*arrPtr)[0]= 7; // Assign the value 7 to the first element of the // second row.```

After the initial assignment, arrPtr points to the first row of the matrix, just as the array name matrix does. At this point you can use arrPtr in the same way as matrix to access the elements. For example, the assignment (*arrPtr)[0] = 5 is equivalent to arrPtr[0][0] = 5 or matrix[0][0] = 5.

However, unlike the array name matrix, the pointer name arrPtr does not represent a constant address, as the operation ++arrPtr shows. The increment operation increases the address stored in an array pointer by the size of one array in this case, one row of the matrix, or ten times the number of bytes in an int element.

If you want to pass a multidimensional array to a function, you must declare the corresponding function parameter as a pointer to an array type.

One more word of caution: if a is an array of ten int elements, then you cannot make the pointer from the previous example, arrPtr, point to the array a by this assignment:

`arrPtr = a; // Error: mismatched pointer types.`

The reason is that an array name, such as a, is implicitly converted into a pointer to the array's first element, not a pointer to the whole array. The pointer to int is not implicitly converted into a pointer to an array of int. The assignment in the example requires an explicit type conversion, specifying the target type int (*)[10] in the cast operator:

`arrPtr = (int (*)[10])a; // OK`

You can derive this notation for the array pointer type from the declaration of arrPtr by removing the identifier. However, for more readable and more flexible code, it is a good idea to define a simpler name for the type using typedef:

```typedef int ARRAY_t[10]; // A type name for "array of ten int elements".ARRAY_t a, // An array of this type, *arrPtr; // and a pointer to this array type.arrPtr = (ARRAY_t *)a; // Let arrPtr point to a.```

## Pointer arrays

Pointer arrays that is, arrays whose elements have a pointer type are often a handy alternative to two-dimensional arrays. Usually the pointers in such an array point to dynamically allocated memory blocks.

For example, if you need to process strings, you could store them in a two-dimensional array whose row size is large enough to hold the longest string that can occur:

```#define ARRAY_LEN 100 #define STRLEN_MAX 256char myStrings[ARRAY_LEN][STRLEN_MAX]= { // Several corollaries of Murphy's Law:"If anything can go wrong, it will.", "Nothing is foolproof, because fools are so ingenious.","Every solution breeds new problems." };```

However, this technique wastes memory, as only a small fraction of the 25,600 bytes devoted to the array is actually used. For one thing, a short string leaves most of a row empty; for another, memory is reserved for whole rows that may never be used. A simple solution in such cases is to use an array of pointers that reference the objects in this case, the strings and to allocate memory only for the pointer array and for objects that actually exist. Unused array elements are null pointers.

```#define ARRAY_LEN 100 char *myStrPtr[ARRAY_LEN]= // Array of pointers to char { // Several corollaries of Murphy's Law:"If anything can go wrong, it will.", "Nothing is foolproof, because fools are so ingenious.","Every solution breeds new problems." };```

The diagram in illustrates how the objects are stored in memory. The pointers not yet used can be made to point to other strings at runtime. The necessary storage can be reserved dynamically in the usual way. The memory can also be released when it is no longer needed.

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!