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here is the sample session with the above program

Enter the number of elements: : 5 Enter the value of m[0]: 34 Enter the value of m[1]: 20 Enter the value of m[2]: 17 Enter the value of m[3]: 65 Enter the value of m[4]: 21 The array before sorting: 34 20 17 65 21The array after step 1: 17 34 20 65 21 The array after step 2: 17 20 34 65 21The array after step 3: 17 20 21 65 34 The array after step 4: 17 20 21 34 65

Pointers vs arrays

Pointers occur in many C programs as references to arrays , and also as elements of arrays. A pointer to an array type is called an array pointer for short, and an array whose elements are pointers is called a pointer array.

Array pointers

For the sake of example, the following description deals with an array of int. The same principles apply for any other array type, including multidimensional arrays.

To declare a pointer to an array type, you must use parentheses, as the following example illustrates:

int (* arrPtr)[10] = NULL; // A pointer to an array of// ten elements with type int.

Without the parentheses, the declaration int * arrPtr[10]; would define arrPtr as an array of 10 pointers to int. Arrays of pointers are described in the next section.

In the example, the pointer to an array of 10 int elements is initialized with NULL. However, if we assign it the address of an appropriate array, then the expression *arrPtr yields the array, and (*arrPtr)[i] yields the array element with the index i. According to the rules for the subscript operator, the expression (*arrPtr)[i]is equivalent to *((*arrPtr)+i). Hence **arrPtr yields the first element of the array, with the index 0.

In order to demonstrate a few operations with the array pointer arrPtr, the following example uses it to address some elements of a two-dimensional array that is, some rows of a matrix:

int matrix[3][10]; // Array of three rows, each with 10 columns. // The array name is a pointer to the first// element; i.e., the first row. arrPtr = matrix; // Let arrPtr point to the first row of// the matrix. (*arrPtr)[0]= 5; // Assign the value 5 to the first element of the // first row.// arrPtr[2][9] = 6; // Assign the value 6 to the last element of the// last row. //++arrPtr; // Advance the pointer to the next row. (*arrPtr)[0]= 7; // Assign the value 7 to the first element of the // second row.

After the initial assignment, arrPtr points to the first row of the matrix, just as the array name matrix does. At this point you can use arrPtr in the same way as matrix to access the elements. For example, the assignment (*arrPtr)[0] = 5 is equivalent to arrPtr[0][0] = 5 or matrix[0][0] = 5.

However, unlike the array name matrix, the pointer name arrPtr does not represent a constant address, as the operation ++arrPtr shows. The increment operation increases the address stored in an array pointer by the size of one array in this case, one row of the matrix, or ten times the number of bytes in an int element.

If you want to pass a multidimensional array to a function, you must declare the corresponding function parameter as a pointer to an array type.

One more word of caution: if a is an array of ten int elements, then you cannot make the pointer from the previous example, arrPtr, point to the array a by this assignment:

arrPtr = a; // Error: mismatched pointer types.

The reason is that an array name, such as a, is implicitly converted into a pointer to the array's first element, not a pointer to the whole array. The pointer to int is not implicitly converted into a pointer to an array of int. The assignment in the example requires an explicit type conversion, specifying the target type int (*)[10] in the cast operator:

arrPtr = (int (*)[10])a; // OK

You can derive this notation for the array pointer type from the declaration of arrPtr by removing the identifier. However, for more readable and more flexible code, it is a good idea to define a simpler name for the type using typedef:

typedef int ARRAY_t[10]; // A type name for "array of ten int elements".ARRAY_t a, // An array of this type, *arrPtr; // and a pointer to this array type.arrPtr = (ARRAY_t *)a; // Let arrPtr point to a.

Pointer arrays

Pointer arrays that is, arrays whose elements have a pointer type are often a handy alternative to two-dimensional arrays. Usually the pointers in such an array point to dynamically allocated memory blocks.

For example, if you need to process strings, you could store them in a two-dimensional array whose row size is large enough to hold the longest string that can occur:

#define ARRAY_LEN 100 #define STRLEN_MAX 256char myStrings[ARRAY_LEN][STRLEN_MAX]= { // Several corollaries of Murphy's Law:"If anything can go wrong, it will.", "Nothing is foolproof, because fools are so ingenious.","Every solution breeds new problems." };

However, this technique wastes memory, as only a small fraction of the 25,600 bytes devoted to the array is actually used. For one thing, a short string leaves most of a row empty; for another, memory is reserved for whole rows that may never be used. A simple solution in such cases is to use an array of pointers that reference the objects in this case, the strings and to allocate memory only for the pointer array and for objects that actually exist. Unused array elements are null pointers.

#define ARRAY_LEN 100 char *myStrPtr[ARRAY_LEN]= // Array of pointers to char { // Several corollaries of Murphy's Law:"If anything can go wrong, it will.", "Nothing is foolproof, because fools are so ingenious.","Every solution breeds new problems." };
Pointer array

The diagram in illustrates how the objects are stored in memory. The pointers not yet used can be made to point to other strings at runtime. The necessary storage can be reserved dynamically in the usual way. The memory can also be released when it is no longer needed.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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