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char c = 'A', *cPtr =&c, **cPtrPtr =&cPtr;

The expression *cPtrPtr now yields the char pointer cPtr, and the value of **cPtrPtr is the char variable c. The diagram in Figure X illustrates these references.

Null pointers

There are times when it’s necessary to have a pointer that doesn’t point to anything. A null pointer is what results when you convert a null pointer constant to a pointer type. A null pointer constant is an integer constant expression with the value 0, or such an expression cast as the type void *.

Null pointers are implicitly converted to other pointer types as necessary for assignment operations, or for comparisons using == or !=. Hence no cast operator is necessary in the previous example.

Void pointers

A pointer to void, or void pointer for short, is a pointer with the type void *. As there are no objects with the type void, the type void * is used as the all-purpose pointer type. In other words, a void pointer can represent the address of any object but not its type. To access an object in memory, you must always convert a void pointer into an appropriate object pointer.

Arrays

Basic of arrays

An array contains objects of a given type, stored consecutively in a continuous memory block.The individual objects are called the elements of an array. The elements' type can be any object type. No other types are permissible: array elements may not have a function type or an incomplete type.

An array is also an object itself, and its type is derived from its elements' type. More specifically, an array's type is determined by the type and number of elements in the array. If an array's elements have type T, then the array is called an "array of T." If the elements have type int, for example, then the array's type is "array of int." The type is an incomplete type, however, unless it also specifies the number of elements. If an array of int has 16 elements, then it has a complete object type, which is "array of 16 int elements."

In C, there is a strong relationship between pointers and arrays, strong enough that pointers and arrays should be discussed simultaneously. Any operation that can be achieved by array subscripting can also be done with pointers. The pointer version will in general be faster but, at least to the uninitiated, somewhat harder to understand.

Declarations and usage of arrays

The definition of an array determines its name, the type of its elements, and the number of elements in the array. The general syntax for declaring a single-dimensional array is

type name[ number_of_elements ];

The number of elements, between square brackets ([ ]), must be an integer expression whose value is greater than zero.

For example, the declaration,

int a[10];

defines an array of size 10, that is, a block of 10 consecutive objects named a[0], a[1], ...,a[9].

char buffer[4*512];

defines an array with the name buffer, which consists of 2,048 elements of type char.

  • The lower bound of an array is set at 0. C++ does not allow you to override or alter this lower bound
  • Declaring a C++ array entails specifying the number of members. The number of member is equal to the upper bound plus one
  • The valid range of indices extends between 0 and number_of_elements -1.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Introduction to computer science. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10776/1.1
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