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Social sciences: history

Grade 6

The road to democracy in sa

Module 8

Apartheid ends – human rights begin

By the time F.W. de Klerk succeeded P.W. Botha as president in 1989, SA had been plunged into a situation of worsening crisis because of international sanctions. The government realised that they could not govern without a state of emergency and that they had no choice but to negotiate with the black majority. On 2 February 1990, the bans on the ANC, PAC, SACP and 33 other organisations were lifted. Nine days later, on 11 February, Nelson Mandela was released from jail after 27 years. (SWA, the present Namibia, became independent in the same year.) The Group Areas Act was repealed in 1991.


The last of the apartheid laws were abolished during 1991 and 1992 and the government started negotiations with the ANC for the first time, after 78 years. This led to the Groote Schuur Agreement. CODESA (Convention for a Democratic South Africa) began. This comprised a series of meetings, during which the various political parties and organisations negotiated in order to establish a temporary, fair and democratic constitution. The date for an election in 1994 was agreed to at the end of 1993.

Activity 1:

To reconstruct the past

[lo 3.3]

(a) Discuss the following three sources in class. Relate the event from the perspective of the different leaders. Also use your own sources.



Negotiations between Mandela and De Klerk


Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk receive the Nobel Prize for Peace.

From: Benjamin, A. 1990. The Alternative Mandela Album. Johannesburg: Argus.

Activity 2:

Constantly be aware of more than one point of view of the past

[lo 3.1]

(a) The sources provided reflect the points of view during the 90’s. When you play the role of historian, you should select and present (communicate) information from different sources. Answer the questions on the provided sources in your groups.


The Sowetan , 12 July 1990


Die Burger , 10 May 1990

  • What do the dark clouds represent (source A)?
  • Why is everyone in a hurry to get away from the dark clouds (source B)?
  • Does source B suggest that the dark clouds disappeared in the 90's? Motivate your answer.
  • Would you take both sources as valuable regarding South African history of the 90's?


The ANC won the first election and Nelson Mandela became the first black president of the "new SA."

(c) Describe the thoughts of the two leaders.

  • How did the world experience the event?
  • How does the new constitution of SA support human rights?

The largest number of heads of state and important leaders ever to attend an inauguration ceremony, gathered for president Nelson Mandela's inauguration. SA was welcomed into the world community with open arms once more. Here are some examples of what this meant:

  • In May 1994, after more than 30 years' absence, SA was readmitted as a member of the OAU (Organisation of African Unity).
  • On 23 July 1994 SA could take a place at a meeting of the UNO for the first time in 20 years.
  • In 1995 SA hosted the World Cup Rugby tournament and the South African Springbok team became the world champions.

Activity 3:

To understand time by placing complicated events in the correct order

[lo 2.1]

  • Compile your own learner-friendly time line of the road to democracy and human rights in SA by placing the events in the correct order.


LO 2
HISTORICAL KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING The learner will be able to demonstrate historical knowledge and understanding.
We know this when the learner:
2.1 chronology and time:
  • places events, people and changes on a timeline which includes terms such as ‘BC’, ‘AD’ and ‘BCE’;
2.2 cause and effect:
  • gives reasons for and explains the results of key events and changes in more than one context;
2.3 change and continuity:
  • identifies some aspects of society which have changed and some which have stayed the same over time in more than one context.
LO 3
HISTORICAL INTERPRETATION The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history.
We know this when the learner:
3.1 interprets sources:
  • compares two versions of an historical event using visual or written sources;
3.2 reconstructs the past:
  • distinguishes opinions from facts and information;
3.3 representation of the past:
  • identifies and selects items which represent an aspect being studied, to contribute to a class display, school museum or community archive.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 6. OpenStax CNX. Sep 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11011/1.1
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