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Besides the empire of the Incas, South America had the Chimu Kingdom, with a capital at Chan Chan and then some less complex societies, called chiefdoms. Two types of the latter existed: (1) A militaristic society, with hereditary classes governed by war chiefs and with usually four classes; caciques or chiefs; people of rank; farmers; and slaves. (2) Theocratic societies under a shaman who officiated in a temple. War was necessary to maintain cannibal practices and to procure trophy heads, which were important symbols in the magic rituals of Chavin, Paracas, Nazca and Tiahuanaco religions. This rite disappeared in the Inca civilization, which seems to have taken over the area previously occupied by the Chimu princes. The explorer Pizarro does not even mention Chan Chan, but those people left many cultural developments in the central Andes, including administrative organization, communications by road, agriculture, long canals allowing intensive farming and perhaps trade and navigation. Their princes dominated only a few valleys, however, and the Incas exerted a much greater influence on the region as a whole. (Ref. 62 )

In the Peruvian coastal areas which had been irrigated, there was already considerable salting of the soil and the population was collapsing. In addition, the small-pox which the Spaniards had brought to Mexico and the West Indies had spread even faster than they did and it was ravaging Peru by 1525. The reigning Inca, Huayna Capa, died of the disease and civil war followed between his two sons. It was into this wreckage of an empire that in 1532 Francisco Pizarro arrived with 106 foot soldiers and 62 horses. As when the Europeans landed in Mexico, Pizarro was at first mistaken for a god, but late in the year he moved his troops inland and seized one of the warring Inca princes, Atahualpa, in the midst of his vast army at Cajamarca. Intimidated by the horses and the obvious fire-power, the Indians put up no resistance, but the prince obtained his temporary release by paying the most fabulous ransom in history - a chamber 8 feet high filled with various objects of gold and jewelry along with 2 similar sized rooms filled with silver. After Pizarro had melted the metal down and distributed part of it among his men, he conveniently garroted Atahualpa on a false charge and appointed still another- royal brother, Tupac Hualpa, as the slain emperor's successor. He did not last long either and was succeeded by Manco. It is no wonder that relations between the two peoples steadily deteriorated so that by late 1535 the situation had become intolerable, from the Inca standpoint.

Manco escaped and assembled an army 100,000 strong to start a resistance to the Spaniards that was to last 36 years. The latter had now been reinforced and were strongly entrenched at Cuzco so that the Incas were unable to reclaim that city. Manco retreated to the juncture of the Andes and the Amazon basin and when pursued even there by a Spanish force, he retreated to Vitcos in the Vilcabamba River valley. Attacked again, he retreated once more while the spoils of Vitcos fell to the Spaniards, including some 20,000 prisoners and 50,000 head of llamas and alpacas. Hidden in the upper Vilcabamba, Manco recouped his forces, while in the meantime Pizarro had been murdered in his palace by some of his own disgruntled soldiers. Some of these then ran and took refuge with Manco and his Incas, where they taught the Indians the Spanish fighting techniques and horseback riding. Later these same Spanish renegades turned on Manco and slew him (1544) leaving the resistance against the Spanish to be led by Manco's son, Sayri Tupac. Some years later Sayri was offered a pardon by the Spanish crown and early in 1558 he married his sister, Cusi Huarcay

As in ancient Egypt, this incestuous situation was the rule among the imperial family of Peru. (Ref. 62 )
. Actually Sayri was never really crowned and died of illness in 1560. All five of Atahualpa's daughters married high ranking Spaniards and the dynasty was eliminated. All of Pizarro's expeditionary forces eventually met disaster. In addition to his own assassination, his three brothers all met violent deaths in one fashion or another. His men either had their heads cut off by the king's executioners or died in brawls or in native battles. The first bishop of Cuzco, Vincente de Valverd, was eaten by the inhabitants of Puna Island, while trying to flee back to Spain. (Ref. 62 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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