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Year by year the map of the New World was charted in gold, silver and blood. Quickly the Spaniards superimposed their own civilization and by 1539 there was a printing press and by 1551 a university in Mexico City. By mid-century some 20,000 Negroes had been brought to Cuernavaca and Vera Cruz. There were productive silver mines in Mexico by the 1540s. Thomas (Ref. 213) says that while the Spaniards conquered Central and South America on horses, mules sustained the conquest. Convoys carrying gold and silver and linking Lima, Cuzco, Panama, Vera Cruz and Mexico were established with these valuable animals. The great harbor at Porto Bello, Panama, became the most thriving town in the Americas as the Atlantic terminal of the mule track across the isthmus carrying the Spaniards' treasure from South America. (Ref. 95 , 8 , 213 , 150 ) Additional Notes

Some of the relative values of things in Central America may be seen in Braudel's (Ref. 292 ) comments about Panama in 1519. A horse was worth 24 1/2 pesos, an Indian slave 30 pesos and a skin of wine 100 pesos. Pedro de Alvarado, who had become governor of Guatemala, heard of rich lands in Peru and led an expedition of 500 men to Quito in 1534, by boat. It is probably an indication of the long time, extensive maritime experience of the people of that area that Alvarado's Indian navigator carried him directly from the Port of Iztopa (near present San Jose, Guatemala) to the Bay of Manta in Ecuador. That was a trip across open ocean of about 1,300 miles, minimum. Land travel, however, would have been at least 1,900 miles, not considering the ups and downs in the mountains, lake detours and the like through mountainous jungles that were actually probably almost impassable. (Ref. 36 )

The situation in the Caribbean Basin in this century deserves further discussion. By 1501 Spanish settlers in Hispaniola (Santa Domingo) had already introduced black slaves, the first in the New World. While Columbus was kept in the Spanish court, still under the cloud from his 3rd voyage, Amerigo Vespucci returned from the west Atlantic, proclaiming that there was an entire continent there, a fact which resulted eventually in its being named after him. Columbus was finally allowed a 4th trip, although refused permission to visit his old Santo Domingo domain. He had 150 men in 4 ships and they made the Atlantic crossing on the trade winds, landing on an island just south of Dominica in 21 days

Trager (Ref. 222 ) has given a gross misstatement on page 161 to the effect that Columbus' 4th voyage took 8 months for the Atlantic crossing
. About 2 weeks later he sent a warning to a large Spanish fleet carrying gold that they should not leave the port of Santo Domingo because of an approaching hurricane. The fleet commander laughed at the warning and started for Spain, only to have his flagship go down and his fleet scattered by the storm. 200,000 castellanos of gold went to the bottom of the Gulf. Columbus' squadron, anchored in a protected area, escaped damage the first night, but did receive some battering the next day.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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