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Every school child knows how the Aztecs, under King Montezuma, were brutally conquered by Hernando Cortez and his handful of Spanish soldiers, in 1521. What is not always realized is that initially the Indians of Mexico welcomed the white, bearded strangers and it is thought by some that the Europeans were considered to be gods, returning as prophesied in some of their ancient legends. At any rate, Cortez landed his ships in the Vera Cruz area, where there were both Huastecs, who spoke a dialect of Maya and the Totonacs, who were vassals of the Aztecs. The former were famous for unusual stone sculptures and may have invented Quetzalcoatl, who became a primary god of the entire region. When Cortez decided to attack the Aztecs after 5 months of reconnoitering, the rebellious Totanacs joined him. (Ref. 236 , 45 , 273 ) The numerous Christian friars and priests, who had accompanied Cortez, learning of the Aztec human sacrifices, were adamant in the necessity to chastise and then baptize the heathen Indians. With his Indian mercenaries, picked up along the way, Cortez marched inland toward the capital city. A relief expedition from Hispaniola in 1520 brought small-pox which spread ahead of the Spaniards through the Indian population. It was thus that the disease was raging in Tenochtitlan when Montezuma was killed by his own rivals, who did not want to surrender to the Spaniards. The new leader and many of his followers died within hours of the small-pox, which spread even to Guatemala in the same year. (Ref. 140). Mc Neill (Ref. 139) con firms that smallpox and measles, brought by Europeans, killed millions of native Americans and had more to do with the collapse of the Aztec power than merely military operations. The population of Mexico dropped from a probable 25,000,000 to 30,000,000 to 3 million by 1568. (Ref. 140 )

Of course the Aztecs and the immediately adjacent tribes were not the only native inhabitants of Mexico. In the far south Chol-speaking Maya Indians hunted the Chiapas jungle with bows and arrows and incidentally probably encountered many of the old abandoned stone cities of their classic ancestors. The Spanish practically annihilated those people, however, leaving the Chiapas rain-forest essentially vacant. (Ref. 283 )

Within two decades of their first landing in Mexico, the relatively few Spaniards had explored the New World from the Atlantic to the Pacific and from Kansas to Argentina. Is there any reason to think that previous sailors landing on the Gulf end of the Canary current could not have done the same? (See Chapter 5). The old Mayan Culture had long gone, but some of the remains were found in Yucatan as early as 1517 by Hernando de Cordova, whose landing party at Cape Cotoche was ambushed by Indians. He was attacked again in Champoton where 62 men were killed and many wounded, so that one ship had to be abandoned because of shortage of crew. In 1526 Don Francisco de Montego was given license to conquer and people the "islands" of Yucatan and Cozumel and to take or buy Indians as slaves. In one battle in this hot, dry land, 1,200 Indians were slaughtered and at Chichen Itza a second great battle resulted in the loss of 150 Spaniards and the wounding of almost all the rest. By 1535, not a single Spaniard remained in Yucatan. When some returned in 1537, many were sacrificed and eaten, but eventually in 1540 the Spanish town of San Francisco de Campeche was founded. (Ref. 204 ) Perhaps some of these Indians were descendants of the ancient Maya, Yucatec-speaking families, using bows and arrows, were living in the rain forests of Guatemala at that time. (Ref. 283 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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