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St. Augustine was burned in 1586 by the English privateer, Sir Francis Drake and he also made an unsuccessful attempt to destroy Santa Elena. He then stopped by Roanoke Island and picked up some of Raleigh's distressed soldiers. The few colonists who remained had either been killed or absorbed by the Indians, when a relief ship finally arrived in 1590.

The Indians bartered skins and furs with the whites. Chief Powhatan reportedly had 4,000 deerskins in a single wardrobe. But the whites took many of the natives captives – Ayllon and DeSoto counting their take in the hundreds. (Ref. 267 )

In the southwest, Texas had been claimed for Spain by Alvarez de Pineda in 1519 and by the 1520s large quantities of horses, cattle and sheep had been brought into New Mexico. In the area of that state and Arizona, there were at that time about 40,000 Pueblo Indians. At about the same time that De Soto landed in Florida, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado had Friar Fray Marcos start north from Mexico on an exploration of what is now New Mexico. He used Esteban, the Moor who had wandered previously from Florida to New Spain, as a guide. Esteban's black color was accepted as a novelty by the Indians and some even thought he was a god. In the following year Coronado himself led an expedition searching for the "Seven Cities of Gold", reaching just south of Sante Fe and then back into the Texas Panhandle and on to the region of Independence, Kansas and the Nebraska border. He had 250 horsemen, 70 Spanish soldiers, 1,000 friendly Mexican Indians, baggage animals, sheep, goats and a train of priests. Others of the original party went around the north end of the Gulf of California and followed the Colorado River up to the Grand Canyon. On his way back to Mexico Coronado viciously attacked the Acoma

Late Anasazi people of the Acoma pueblo. (Ref. 277 )
Indian city about 40 miles west of present day Albuquerque, in spite of the pope's edict about humane treatment of the Indians, and in 3 days and nights the Spanish killed 600

Acomas and imprisoned and enslaved that many more. But Spaniards fell, too, and Coronado returned with only 1/3 of his original 300 plus white men. That Acoma pueblo, originally built by Kersan Indians on top of a rock mesa with edifices 3 stories high, was already ancient and may have been the oldest inhabited site in the United States. In spite of that bloody fight, those Acomas were converted to Christianity some 30 years later by a barefoot and unarmed Franciscan priest, Father Ramirez. (Ref. 39 , 198 , 215 , 165 )

Beginning in 1596 Juan de Onate took an expedition from Mexico City to El Paso and then to Sante Fe and on to Quivera, Kansas and then returned via California, at the top of the Gulf. This was followed in 1598 by the arrival in the New Mexico area by 400 Spanish men, women and children with their 80 wagons and 7,000 head of live stock. Some 3,000 sheep were included. (Ref. 39 , 222 ) In the far west an Englishman did upstage the Spaniards, as Sir Francis Drake anchored in 1579 just north of San Francisco Bay, claiming the land for his queen, calling it Nova Albion (New England). (Ref. 198 )

Juan de Cabrillo and Bartolome Ferrelo had previously explored the west coast to Oregon

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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