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All southern Indians were essentially farmers and maize was the staff of life. Farming techniques had progressed far beyond any primitive slash and burn type of agriculture. The impression for years has been that the squaws did most of the work, but this is not correct. These Indians lived chiefly in towns and had their fields in the countryside. While women may have attended small garden plots, men did much of the work in the principal fields, clearing them, girdling large trees with stone axes and knives and fire, disposing of stumps, breaking the ground with hoes consisting of wooden handles with stone, conch shells or large animal bones at the ends. The maize was grown quite scientifically, planted at stated intervals in hills. As growth occurred, more dirt was piled up around the hill, keeping down weeds, trapping moisture and ensuring a higher yield. A Timucuan practice in Florida was to plant one crop of maize in the early spring and another in the summer on the same ground. It was also possible to grow dent, sweet, pop and other varieties of corn, which matured at different intervals. Although secondary in importance, hunting and gathering did occur. Deer were important, not only for food but for skins, and bears were hunted particularly for their oil, as well as fur and meat. It is not known whether maize was brought up from Meso-America overland via Texas or by sea through the West Indies. (Ref. 267 )

It was in the Virginia and Carolina Tidewater area where mixing of the northern hunting-oriented culture with the southern maize-agrarian civilization can best be documented. The Algonquians, originally spread over Canada, were late arrivals in the Tidewater, becoming in part, the Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia and Pamlico and Machapunga of eastern North Carolina. A feature conspicuously absent in the Tidewater was the temple platform mound. Other Algonquians were the Roanoke, Croatoan and Chowanoc. At the time of white contact there were powerful chiefdoms which might almost be called empires all over the south and southeast, including the Cofitachiqui, Powhatan, Natchez and Calyusa. When the Natchez Sun died, his subjects staged an elaborate funeral which included immolation of his wives. Nearer the east coast local natives had had extensive contact with Europeans for generation before Raleigh's Roanoke fiasco, some from Spanish land contact, such as with Ayllon and otherwise with ships either wrecked or coming ashore for provisions.

In spite of their early failures, Spain did not give up. Tristan de Luna took 1,500 men, women and black slaves to try 2 settlements, one at Pensacola and the other at Saint Elena (Port Royal). Lack of supplies, disease, internal bickering and native hostility again defeated the expectations. St. Augustine was founded by Menendez with more than 1,000 soldiers, farmers, artisans, their wives and Negroes in 1565. At first it was really a military base from which to attack the thousand or so French Huguenots, who had fortified Ft. Caroline just north on the St. Johns River. After these French were finally expelled, St. Augustine, with only a mediocre harbor and sandy, relatively unproductive soil, declined in significance. But from St. Elena, founded in South Caroline in about 1566 on the site of present day Parris Island Marine Corps base, soldiers and missionaries trekked into the interior, planting at least five garrisons in the Carolina back country and on the western side of the mountains. For 6 years a Father Sebastian Montero lived among the pagans, teaching them Spanish and the rudiments of Christianity. St. Elena existed for about 21 years and once had about 400 people in some 60 houses. (Ref. 267 , 39 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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