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All southern Indians were essentially farmers and maize was the staff of life. Farming techniques had progressed far beyond any primitive slash and burn type of agriculture. The impression for years has been that the squaws did most of the work, but this is not correct. These Indians lived chiefly in towns and had their fields in the countryside. While women may have attended small garden plots, men did much of the work in the principal fields, clearing them, girdling large trees with stone axes and knives and fire, disposing of stumps, breaking the ground with hoes consisting of wooden handles with stone, conch shells or large animal bones at the ends. The maize was grown quite scientifically, planted at stated intervals in hills. As growth occurred, more dirt was piled up around the hill, keeping down weeds, trapping moisture and ensuring a higher yield. A Timucuan practice in Florida was to plant one crop of maize in the early spring and another in the summer on the same ground. It was also possible to grow dent, sweet, pop and other varieties of corn, which matured at different intervals. Although secondary in importance, hunting and gathering did occur. Deer were important, not only for food but for skins, and bears were hunted particularly for their oil, as well as fur and meat. It is not known whether maize was brought up from Meso-America overland via Texas or by sea through the West Indies. (Ref. 267 )

It was in the Virginia and Carolina Tidewater area where mixing of the northern hunting-oriented culture with the southern maize-agrarian civilization can best be documented. The Algonquians, originally spread over Canada, were late arrivals in the Tidewater, becoming in part, the Powhatan Confederacy in Virginia and Pamlico and Machapunga of eastern North Carolina. A feature conspicuously absent in the Tidewater was the temple platform mound. Other Algonquians were the Roanoke, Croatoan and Chowanoc. At the time of white contact there were powerful chiefdoms which might almost be called empires all over the south and southeast, including the Cofitachiqui, Powhatan, Natchez and Calyusa. When the Natchez Sun died, his subjects staged an elaborate funeral which included immolation of his wives. Nearer the east coast local natives had had extensive contact with Europeans for generation before Raleigh's Roanoke fiasco, some from Spanish land contact, such as with Ayllon and otherwise with ships either wrecked or coming ashore for provisions.

In spite of their early failures, Spain did not give up. Tristan de Luna took 1,500 men, women and black slaves to try 2 settlements, one at Pensacola and the other at Saint Elena (Port Royal). Lack of supplies, disease, internal bickering and native hostility again defeated the expectations. St. Augustine was founded by Menendez with more than 1,000 soldiers, farmers, artisans, their wives and Negroes in 1565. At first it was really a military base from which to attack the thousand or so French Huguenots, who had fortified Ft. Caroline just north on the St. Johns River. After these French were finally expelled, St. Augustine, with only a mediocre harbor and sandy, relatively unproductive soil, declined in significance. But from St. Elena, founded in South Caroline in about 1566 on the site of present day Parris Island Marine Corps base, soldiers and missionaries trekked into the interior, planting at least five garrisons in the Carolina back country and on the western side of the mountains. For 6 years a Father Sebastian Montero lived among the pagans, teaching them Spanish and the rudiments of Christianity. St. Elena existed for about 21 years and once had about 400 people in some 60 houses. (Ref. 267 , 39 )

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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