<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Archeological and linguistic evidence discloses numerous pre-Columbian contacts between these two places. In spite of all the stories in children's histories about Ponce de Leon's trip to "find the fountain of youth", he really sailed to Florida to capture slaves and find precious metals, if available. He was authorized to make war on the Lucayhos aborigines, if necessary. Florida was erroneously regarded as just another island and the term Lucayos (or Bimini) frequently included Florida. On his first voyage, Ponce was not very successful, obtaining little more than a handful of Indians, some of whom he trained as interpreters, but when he returned in 1521 he opened war against the Caluysa and they killed him. (Ref. 267 )

There were apparently many shipwrecks of European vessels along the southern coasts in the 16th century - some say 10,000 - and the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex of Indians began to use the silver coins and jewelry for their own pendants, gorgets and beads. All of this means that the Algonquians, Siouans, Muskhogeans and Iroquoians living by the ocean knew a great deal about the Europeans before they actually landed. In 1520 Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon commissioned Francisco Gordillo to sail to the northerly part of La Florida and he did so, going clear up to Chesapeake Bay, even making a short exploratory inland trip in the vicinity of Pawley's Island. After some other explorations by subordinates, Ayllon himself set forth in 1526 with 7 ships, 500 men, 100 women and Negroes, 89 horses and interpreters to settle in the region of the Cape Fear River or the Santee River. The enterprise did not prosper as one provision ship wrecked and sank and Ayllon died after an extended sickness. The remaining people relocated farther south near the future George- town, Carolina, where most died of disease, drowning or Indian warfare. A few remnants returned to Hispaniola. A little later Narvaez landed in the vicinity of Tampa Bay and detected gold among the natives' possessions. They claimed it had been obtained in Apalachee, a province in the north. Certainly there was gold in the Appalachian Mountains, but whether the Indians had mined it in truth or obtained the gold from shipwrecks or from Mexico, is not known. Narvaez searched for the source but was unsuccessful. – The only survivors of this expedition were Cabeza de Vaca, the black Moor slave, Esteban and a few others. The first two and one other wandered for 8 years across the southern United States, including Texas, Arizona and New Mexico to the area inhabited by the Pima Indians, finally reaching Mexico City. (Ref. 39 , 267 )

Leaving Spain in 1538, Hernando de Soto landed in the vicinity of present day Tampa Bay in 1539 following Narvaez' trail with 600 men and more than 200 horses. He went up the peninsula, wintered in Apalachee, then struck out northward to Cofitachiqui, west- ward to present day Alabama and across the Mississippi into Arkansas before finally dying and being buried in the Mississippi River. On his travels he visited the Queen of the powerful Coitachiqui Chiefdom, occupying a central position in present day South Carolina, and was impressed by the numerous houses, large mounds and the grand wooden mat-covered temple. The queen and her court wore long pearl necklaces - those in her possession reputedly weighing all together some thousands of pounds. Her warriors had copper-tipped pikes, maces, battle axes and perhaps 50,000 bows and quivers. The Cofitachiqui language is unknown. Supposedly Cofitachique contained at least 500 houses, as did Caxa in Alabama and Ocale in Florida. All was not sweetness and light, however, as the Spanish say that an army of 10,000 Timucuans contested De Soto's trip through Florida and up to 7,000 warriors assaulted him in Mabila. But de Soto and his Spaniards brought small-pox, measles, tuberculosis, chicken-pox, scarlet fever, typhus, influenza, whooping cough and the common cold so that within a few decades the southeast became markedly depopulated and the economic and political structure of Mississippian life collapsed permanently. Furthermore, the Caluyas and the Cofitachiqui may already have been depleted and some settlements abandoned before De Soto arrived as a result of the migration of infected survivors from a great 1530 plague in Mexico City. (Ref. 267, 39) Thus, before proceeding with a further description of the Spanish invasion, a few more words about the southeastern Indians prior to the advent of Spanish explorers seems advisable.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region)' conversation and receive update notifications?

Yacoub Jayoghli
Start Quiz