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Having taken you away from the tonic , it’s now time to bring you back.

Just as the dominant leads to the tonic within the key, the dominant typically helps to restore the tonic key after a series of modulations . This “stand on the dominant,” as it is generally called, can be quite involved and expansive, incorporating chromaticism as a way of building tension. The greater the amount of time spent away from the tonic , the longer the “stand” on the dominant may tend to be.

In J.S. Bach’s “Prelude in C-Major” from The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I , the return to the tonic is prepared by stand on the dominant that lasts for a quarter of the composition! When the bass finally moves to the tonic, there is one more postponement of closure : Chromaticism is added to the tonic chord, delaying final resolution until the very last chord.

A return to the tonic is often accompanied by a recognizable reprise of the primary theme: Often, the only complete restatements of the theme occur in the tonic; all the others are interrupted in some way.

J.S. Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 opens by stating its theme in full.

For this arrival in the dominant, the theme is “cracked open” and new music inserted in the middle.

This arrival in minor is marked by a truncated version of the theme—only its tail is played, as if you were just catching a glimpse of it.

The theme finally is restored “whole” at the culminating return to the original key.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Symphony No. 40 in g-minor likewise begins with a full statement of its main theme.

Once it begins to modulate , the theme is never stated in full until the return to the original key. In an unusual and exquisite touch, the theme’s return slightly overlaps with the stand on the dominant ; as a result, it resolves to the tonic a few beats later than expected.

Thus, one of the primary ways of affirming the return to the tonic is to reserve complete thematic statements for the home key. That helps the listener orient him or herself: “If the theme is whole, I must be home.”

As a movement reaches its close, there is often one last postponement of closure , called a Coda . The Coda is a section whose purpose is to delay the tonic arrival one last time.

The Finale of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s Symphony No. 41 in C-Major, “Jupiter” ends with one of classical music’s great Codas . The excerpt begins with a passage that could have functioned as the closing cadence. However, instead of ending there, Mozart extends the Finale with a Coda in which all of its themes are combined in a gigantic “mash-up.”

The Coda of the first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Symphony No. 7 begins with a humorous touch. The speeding up of harmonic rhythm at the final cadence makes for a roof-raising conclusion.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Sound reasoning. OpenStax CNX. May 31, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10214/1.21
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