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The Bonito people monitored the solar cycles with a solar observatory on Fajada Butte. Spiral patterns carved into native rock caught shafts of light between other rocks in a precise way, which indicated the solstices and equinoxes. A scarcity of burials at the Great Chaco complex has posed some questions and resulted in numerous theories. Was this only a large ceremonial center serving as a mecca for pilgrims coming in on the great road system? Or was it a type of federal city for handling the outlier's trade and political alliances? (Ref. 277 ) Near the end of the century the pueblo dwellers increased their defenses, building watch towers, doubling wall thicknesses and restricting access to their homes, suggesting that the Apaches were reaching this territory. (Ref. 210 )

According to ancient Indian beliefs the San Francisco Peaks

These peaks are just north of Flagstaff and Williams, Arizona.
which are surrounded by a large volcanic area in northern Arizona, are the home of Kachina spirits. Some Indians had lived in pit-houses near those peaks since about A.D. 600 but suddenly in A.D. 1065 there was a violent volcanic eruption, with a cone of cinders and ash thrown a thousand feet high and a stream of lava flowed on the ground. Black ash covered 800 square miles and the terrified Indians left. When they eventually cautiously returned they found that the ash had trapped water beneath and had produced a very fertile area which could be farmed with very little extra moisture needed. Archeologists have given those Indians the name "Senagua", meaning "without water". The rich soil attracted others, including Hohokam, Mogollon and Cohonina and there was an interchange of ideas and cultures. (Ref. 210 )

The Mogollon Culture of southern New Mexico and eastern Arizona had continued through the centuries in various stages of development. The people of that area now began to build houses in the pueblo style with buildings above ground. They had fine, polychrome member pottery, some with red designs on brown and some with rectangular designs with white stripes. Other pottery was black on white with complicated curvilinear and rectilinear designs. Cotton was grown and used as cloth. (Ref. 45 )

A unique Indian culture, which was earlier considered of unknown antecedents and descendants, flourished about 950 to 1 150 in southwestern New Mexico, just east of what is now Silver City. They were called Mimbrenos , after their river valley and were peaceful corn growers who created some of the most beautiful of American Indian pottery. This had imaginative decorations and was all accomplished without the use of the potter's wheel or the kiln. This work is coveted by museums and collectors throughout the world. It is known now that these people were part of the Mogollons. (Ref. 223 , 210 )

Mexico and central america

The Yucatec and the Toltec civilizations, which were discussed in the last chapter, were both failing by the end of this century. According to tradition, drought and sickness took their toll among the Toltecs and their monarchy ended in 1052

Trager (Ref. 222 ) refers to the epidemic and decline as occurring in the Mayan Empire , but this is probably just another error in that text.
. Their land then lay devastated for a century. On the Gulf coast, the Huastec Society appeared at about this time. (Ref. 205 )

South america

In this century the coastal societies came under the control of the Chimu (formerly Chimor), who built the great capital of Chan Chan near the present city of Trujillo, near the sea. This was in the old Mochican area but was an entirely new capital. From this century until the subjugation of these people by the Incas, some four centuries later, the sequence of events is very unclear. Some of the buildings of Chan Chan are very large and may have been built in different periods. Some believe part of the edifices was constructed by invaders from the north (even from as far away as Ecuador) in about 1200.

Near Chan Chan the powerful Chicama River could be used, via a long canal, for irrigating a huge desert zone. (Ref. 62 )

The Diaguites, originally of the semi-arid Argentine Andes, probably existed at this time and continued to live there until confrontation with the Spaniards some 500 years later. They have left ruins of small fortified settlements on easily defensible crests, approached by narrow, paved roads, always located near a river or spring. Farmland was terraced to save rain water. They made rock carvings and unusual pottery, one type of which is the "Santa Maria" urn, with a wide neck and side handles. (Ref. 62 )

Forward to America: A.D. 1101 to 1200

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Questions & Answers

Roofs are sometimes pushed off vertically during a tropical cyclone, and buildings sometimes explode outward when hit by a tornado. Use Bernoulli’s principle to explain these phenomena.
Aliraza Reply
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Aliraza
what's the basic si unit of acceleration
ELLOIN Reply
Explain why the change in velocity is different in the two frames, whereas the change in kinetic energy is the same in both.
Fabian Reply
Insulators (nonmetals) have a higher BE than metals, and it is more difficult for photons to eject electrons from insulators. Discuss how this relates to the free charges in metals that make them good conductors.
Muhammad Reply
Is the photoelectric effect a direct consequence of the wave character of EM radiation or of the particle character of EM radiation? Explain briefly.
Muhammad
Determine the total force and the absolute pressure on the bottom of a swimming pool 28.0m by 8.5m whose uniform depth is 1 .8m.
Henny Reply
how solve this problem?
Foday
P(pressure)=density ×depth×acceleration due to gravity Force =P×Area(28.0x8.5)
Fomukom
for the answer to complete, the units need specified why
muqaddas Reply
That's just how the AP grades. Otherwise, you could be talking about m/s when the answer requires m/s^2. They need to know what you are referring to.
Kyle
Suppose a speck of dust in an electrostatic precipitator has 1.0000×1012 protons in it and has a net charge of –5.00 nC (a very large charge for a small speck). How many electrons does it have?
Alexia Reply
how would I work this problem
Alexia
how can you have not an integer number of protons? If, on the other hand it supposed to be 1e12, then 1.6e-19C/proton • 1e12 protons=1.6e-7 C is the charge of the protons in the speck, so the difference between this and 5e-9C is made up by electrons
Igor
what is angular velocity
Obaapa Reply
angular velocity can be defined as the rate of change in radian over seconds.
Fidelis
Why does earth exert only a tiny downward pull?
Mya Reply
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Islam
Why is light bright?
Abraham Reply
what is radioactive element
Attah Reply
an 8.0 capacitor is connected by to the terminals of 60Hz whoes rms voltage is 150v. a.find the capacity reactance and rms to the circuit
Aisha Reply
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Valdes Reply
what is physics
Nwafor Reply
is the study of matter in relation to energy
Kintu
physics can be defined as the natural science that deals with the study of motion through space,time along with its related concepts which are energy and force
Fidelis
a submersible pump is dropped a borehole and hits the level of water at the bottom of the borehole 5 seconds later.determine the level of water in the borehole
Obrian Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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