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Southeastern Indians knew much more about metallurgy than generally realized. They made decorative and utilitarian objects from lead and had acquired and used copper from local sources. They fashioned beads, bracelets, earrings, ceremonial knives and axes, gorgets, and breast plates, some elaborately decorated with an eagle or hawk. This metallurgy seemed to be associated with the so-called Southeastern Ceremonial Complex, a cultural association variously called the Eagle, Hawk, Buzzard or Southern Cult. It was associated with fire and sun worship and bird motifs. Sun circles, bi-lobed arrows, forked eyes, hand and eye and crosses can all be found engraved on copper and shell. Before Europeans arrived the south was not rural, as the aborigines lived in towns. Although no one is sure of the location, there were Cofitachiqui, Mabila and Apalachee Indian centers, each of whose populations numbered in the thousands. Some were fortified and palisaded. A pole 5O or more feet in height erected on a small mound in a ceremonial ball game area was important in the culture. Certain death practices were similar throughout the South, in that bones of the dead were cleaned and stored in boxes or baskets. Granaries were commonplace and any town of consequence had a sweat house, or sauna. (Ref. 267 )

Some writers have stated than in the southwest the Hohokam way of life began to disappear as the people pulled back to their original homeland in the desert. (Ref. 210 ) More recent material indicates, however, that they had not yet even reached their "Classical Period". (Ref. 269 ) The Anasazi and/or related pueblo people, survived at Bonito Pueblo (Chaco Canyon, New Mexico) with their new buildings showing a masonry of facing stones carefully applied to rubble cores, a Mexican technique suggesting contact with missionaries or traders from Mexico. This concept is disputed by some, however, when they point out that new road systems of this period appeared to radiate out of Chaco northward, rather than to the south and that many of the Chaco artifacts, particularly marine shells, were probably acquired by trade with other, native southwest tribes, such as the Hohokam. The inhabitants of Chaco Canyon cut down some 50,000 trees for pueblo construction and fuel, so that the once extensive forests were stripped, allowing erosion of the canyon. Some of the heavy logs for roofing beams may have been carried as far as 30 miles. To elaborate on the remarks above, Pueblo Bonito was reconstructed in this 11th century, with workmen tearing out old walls and building new ones of a core-and-veneer type involving outer walls of sandstone blocks with earth and ruble in the center. Lower walls were more than 3 feet thick, tapering as they rose, until the rear wall was 5 stories high. When finished this pueblo held 650 rooms and may have been occupied by 1200 persons. Seven other great pueblos were also constructed, some only a few hundred yards apart, each of similar design, in one complex. Overall there were about a dozen pueblo complexes in the Chaco Canyon with well over 2,000 rooms. At least 70 communities, similar in design but generally smaller, existed outside the canyon from a few to 100 miles away. Recent aerial studies have indicated that the great road system, mentioned above, connected these outliers to the center. The roads ran arrow straight, with cuts through some mounds and steps carved in cliff faces, all up to 30 feet wide. One of the larger outlying pueblos was on the San Juan River, 40 miles north of Chaco and known now as the Salmon ruins. Started in 1088 it was completed in 5 years and contained 300 rooms. Huge wooden beams were obtained in the La Plata mountains, more than 75 miles away. It had a great kiva and great tower with 6 feet thick walls rising from the second story of the town. The walls were supported by solid buttresses.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history (organized by region). OpenStax CNX. Nov 23, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10597/1.2
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