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Supporting documents and tables

Source Lorek
Toysmart creditors
Creditor Description Debt Impact
Zero Stage Capital Venture Capital Firm 4 million
Citibank 4 million
Arnold Communications 2.5 million
Children's Television Workshop 1.3 million
Data Connections Set up high speed cable and fiber optics for Toysmart 85,000 Data Connections took out loan to keep solvent
Integrated Handling Concepts Set up packaging and handling system for Toysmart 40,000 Requires dot-coms to pay up front after Toysmart experience
Blackstone Software business 45,000 "It puts us in jeopardy as well"
PAN Communications "Public relations agency specializing in e-business" 171,390 Turns down deals with dot-com companies and requires up-front payments

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Intermediate moral concept: informed consent

    Concept and definition

  • Informed Consent : The risk bearer consents to taking on the risk on the basis of a complete understanding of its nature and breadth.
  • Belmont Report : "subjects, to the degree that they are capable, be given the opportunity to choose what shall or shall not happen to them."
  • "This opportunity is provided when adequate standards for informed consent are satisfied."
  • Quotes take from Belmont Report
  • Free and informed consent is essential for the exercise of moral autonomy. Absence implies force, fraud, or manipulation all of which block the exercise of moral autonomy.
  • The standard threat occurs when crucial risk information is not communicated to risk taker. This could be because the risk taker cannot appreciate the risk, because the mode of communication is inadequate, or because the information has been covered up. Given this standard threat, free and informed consent is vulnerable ; it must be protected.
  • Informed consent must be shaped around its feasibility, that is, the ability of the duty holder to recognize and respect this right in others. If private individuals exercise their right as a veto, then they can block socially beneficial projects. There are also serious problems concerning children, mentally challenged adults, and future generations. Finally, it may not be possible or feasible to know all risks in advance.

    Conditions for recognizing and respecting right

  • From Belmont Report
  • Information : research procedure, their purposes, risks and anticipated benefits, alternative procedures (where therapy is involved), and a statement offering the subject the opportunity to ask questions and to withdraw at any time from the research.
  • Comprehension : manner and context in which information is conveyed is as important as the information itself.
  • Voluntariness : an agreement to participate in research constitutes a valid consent only if voluntarily given. This element of informed consent requires conditions free of coercion and undue influence.
  • Institutional Research Boards or IRBs now require documentation of informed consent on research projects carried out under the university's auspicies. This is in response to requirements by granting agencies such as the National Institute for Health and the National Science Foundation.
  • Consenting to the transfer of PII (personal identifying information) online :opt-in and opt-out.
  • Opt-in : Information is transferred only upon obtaining express consent. Default is not transferring information.
  • Opt-in : Information transfer is halted only when person to whom information applies does something positive, i.e., refuses to consent to transfer. Default is on transferring the information.
  • Liability Rules and Property Rules : These also have to do with consent. Sagoff makes this distinction with reference to activities that have an impact on the environment. an injunction referring to liability rules stops the activity to protect the individual who proves impact. Property rules require only that the producer of the environmental impact compensate the one who suffers the impact.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Corporate governance. OpenStax CNX. Aug 20, 2007 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10396/1.10
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