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    Pitfalls of the harm/beneficence test

  1. “Paralysis of Analysis" comes from considering too many consequences and not focusing only on those relevant to your decision.
  2. Incomplete Analysis results from considering too few consequences. Often it indicates a failure of moral imagination which, in this case, is the ability to envision the consequences of each action alternative.
  3. Failure to compare different alternatives can lead to a decision that is too limited and one-sided.
  4. Failure to weigh harms against benefits occurs when decision makers lack the experience to make the qualitative comparisons required in ethical decision making.
  5. Finally, justice failures result from ignoring the fairness of the distribution of harms andbenefits. This leads to a solution which may maximize benefits and minimize harms but still give rise to serious injustices in the distribution of these benefits and harms.

Reversibility test

  1. Set up the test by (i) identifying the agent, (ii) describing the action, and (iii) identifying thestakeholders and their stakes.
  2. Use the stakeholder analysis to identify the relations to be reversed.
  3. Reverse roles between the agent (you) and each stakeholder: put them in your place (as the agent) andyourself in their place (as the one subjected to the action).
  4. If you were in their place, would you still find the action acceptable?

    Cross checks for reversibility test (these questions help you to check if you have carried out the reversibility test properly.)

  • Does the proposed action treat others with respect? (Does it recognize their autonomy or circumventit?)
  • Does the action violate the rights of others? (Examples of rights: free and informed consent, privacy, freedom ofconscience, due process, property, freedom of expression)
  • Would you recommend that this action become a universal rule?
  • Are you, through your action, treating others merely as means?

    Pitfalls of the reversibility test

  • Leaving out a key stakeholder relation
  • Failing to recognize and address conflicts between stakeholders and their conflicting stakes
  • Confusing treating others with respect with capitulating to their demands (“Reversing withHitler”)
  • Failing to reach closure, i.e., an overall, global reversal assessment that takes into account all the stakeholdersthe agent has reversed with.

Steps in applying the public identification test

  • Set up the analysis by identifying the agent, describing the action, and listing the key values or virtues at play in the situation.
  • Association the action with the agent.
  • Describe what the action says about the agent as a person. Does it reveal him or her as someone associated with a virtue or a vice?

    Alternative version of public identification

  • Does the action under consideration realize justice or does it pose an excess or defect of justice?
  • Does the action realize responsibility or pose an excess or defect of responsibility?
  • Does the action realize reasonableness or pose too much or too little reasonableness?
  • Does the action realize honesty or pose too much or too little honesty?
  • Does the action realize integrity or pose too much or too little integrity?

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Using the ethics bowl to integrate ethics into the business and professional curriculum. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10411/1.2
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