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Ethics tests for solution evaluation

Three ethics tests (reversibility,harm/beneficence, and public identification) encapsulate three ethical approaches (deontology, utilitarianism, and virtue ethics)and form the basis of stage three of the SDC, solution testing. A fourth test (a value realization test) builds upon the publicidentification/virtue ethics test by evaluating a solution in terms of the values it harmonizes, promotes, protects, or realizes. Finally a code test provides an independent check on the ethics tests and also highlights intermediate moral concepts such as safety, health, welfare,faithful agency, conflict of interest, confidentiality, professional integrity, collegiality, privacy, property, freespeech, and equity/access). The following section provides advice on how to use these tests. More information can be found at www.computingcases.org.

Setting up the ethics tests: pitfalls to avoid

Set-Up Pitfalls: Mistakes in this area lead to the analysis becoming unfocused and getting lost in irrelevancies.(a) Agent-switching where the analysis falls prey to irrelevancies that crop up when the test application is not grounded in thestandpoint of a single agent, (b) Sloppy action-description where the analysis fails because no specific action has been tested, (c)Test-switching where the analysis fails because one test is substituted for another. (For example, the public identificationand reversibility tests are often reduced to the harm/beneficence test where harmful consequences are listed but not associated withthe agent or stakeholders.)

    Set up the test

  1. Identify the agent (the person who is going to perform the action)
  2. Describe the action or solution that is being tested (what the agent is going to do or perform)
  3. Identify the stakeholders (those individuals or groups who are going to be affected by the action), and their stakes (interests,values, goods, rights, needs, etc.
  4. Identify, sort out, and weigh the consequences (the results the action is likely to bringabout)

Harm/beneficence test

  • What harms would accompany the action under consideration? Would it produce physical or mental suffering,impose financial or non-financial costs, or deprive others of important or essential goods?
  • What benefits would this action bring about? Would it increase safety, quality of life, health, security,or other goods both moral and non-moral?
  • What is the magnitude of each these consequences? Magnitude includes likelihood it will occur(probability), the severity of its impact (minor or major harm) and the range of people affected.
  • Identify one or two other viable alternatives and repeat these steps for them. Some of these may bemodifications of the basic action that attempt to minimize some of the likely harms. These alternatives will establish a basis forassessing your alternative by comparing it with others.
  • Decide on the basis of the test which alternative produces the best ratio of benefits to harms?
  • Check for inequities in the distribution of harms and benefits. Do all the harms fall on one individual (orgroup)? Do all of the benefits fall on another? If harms and benefits are inequitably distributed, can they be redistributed?What is the impact of redistribution on the original solution imposed?

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Using the ethics bowl to integrate ethics into the business and professional curriculum. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10411/1.2
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