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Ethics tests for solution evaluation

Three ethics tests (reversibility,harm/beneficence, and public identification) encapsulate three ethical approaches (deontology, utilitarianism, and virtue ethics)and form the basis of stage three of the SDC, solution testing. A fourth test (a value realization test) builds upon the publicidentification/virtue ethics test by evaluating a solution in terms of the values it harmonizes, promotes, protects, or realizes. Finally a code test provides an independent check on the ethics tests and also highlights intermediate moral concepts such as safety, health, welfare,faithful agency, conflict of interest, confidentiality, professional integrity, collegiality, privacy, property, freespeech, and equity/access). The following section provides advice on how to use these tests. More information can be found at www.computingcases.org.

Setting up the ethics tests: pitfalls to avoid

Set-Up Pitfalls: Mistakes in this area lead to the analysis becoming unfocused and getting lost in irrelevancies.(a) Agent-switching where the analysis falls prey to irrelevancies that crop up when the test application is not grounded in thestandpoint of a single agent, (b) Sloppy action-description where the analysis fails because no specific action has been tested, (c)Test-switching where the analysis fails because one test is substituted for another. (For example, the public identificationand reversibility tests are often reduced to the harm/beneficence test where harmful consequences are listed but not associated withthe agent or stakeholders.)

    Set up the test

  1. Identify the agent (the person who is going to perform the action)
  2. Describe the action or solution that is being tested (what the agent is going to do or perform)
  3. Identify the stakeholders (those individuals or groups who are going to be affected by the action), and their stakes (interests,values, goods, rights, needs, etc.
  4. Identify, sort out, and weigh the consequences (the results the action is likely to bringabout)

Harm/beneficence test

  • What harms would accompany the action under consideration? Would it produce physical or mental suffering,impose financial or non-financial costs, or deprive others of important or essential goods?
  • What benefits would this action bring about? Would it increase safety, quality of life, health, security,or other goods both moral and non-moral?
  • What is the magnitude of each these consequences? Magnitude includes likelihood it will occur(probability), the severity of its impact (minor or major harm) and the range of people affected.
  • Identify one or two other viable alternatives and repeat these steps for them. Some of these may bemodifications of the basic action that attempt to minimize some of the likely harms. These alternatives will establish a basis forassessing your alternative by comparing it with others.
  • Decide on the basis of the test which alternative produces the best ratio of benefits to harms?
  • Check for inequities in the distribution of harms and benefits. Do all the harms fall on one individual (orgroup)? Do all of the benefits fall on another? If harms and benefits are inequitably distributed, can they be redistributed?What is the impact of redistribution on the original solution imposed?

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Using the ethics bowl to integrate ethics into the business and professional curriculum. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col10411/1.2
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