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Source B:

Dingane had no reason to be scared. Retief’s party slept there for three nights without any incidents. Some Voortrekkers, however, became bored and walked past the main kraal.

Source C:

Dingane did not give any land to Retief because individual ownership was unheard of amongst the Zulu. In any case, the land belonged to the nation, and not to the king. This same land was temporarily lent to the British traders, but remained the property of the Zulu.

Source D:

Zulu guards saw how Voortrekker spies sauntered around the main kraal during their second visit. This was also forbidden territory for the Zulu and trespassing was punishable by death.

Source E:

The British traders did not want to sell weapons to Dingane anymore. The Voortrekkers were the ideal people from whom to obtain weapons. Unfortunately, Retief did not hand over Sekonyela’s weapons to Dingane. This upset Dingane. It made him use force in order to realise his ideal.

c) What would have happened if:

both Dingane and Retief had been able to speak English?

native Americans, and not the Zulus, had lived in Natal?

Meanwhile, the news of Mzilikazi’s defeats reached Dingane. He was shocked about the might of the Voortrekkers because not even he could have defeated the Ndebele. He wanted to be sure that the rest of the Voortrekkers would not attack him.

Therefore, the Zulu attacked the Voortrekker camps along the banks of the Bushman and Blaaukrantz Rivers early on the morning of 17 February 1838. About 500 people, of whom half were handymen and workers, died. However, the Zulu had to retreat after a temporary counterattack, but they left with 25 000 livestock. The Voortrekkers were determined to stay in Natal, but first had to recover their losses. The small town of Weenen was later established on the spot.

The attacks on the Voortrekkers at Blaauwkrantz

Potgieter was called to help the Natal Trekkers. Both he and Uys led a commando to punish the Zulu and to retrieve the Voortrekkers’ livestock.

On the way to Mgungundlovu, on 10 April 1838, the Zulu led the foremost commando of Uys into an ambush in a dense, overgrown ravine at Italeni. The Zulu had indeed expected an attack. The only thing that Potgieter’s commando could do was to concentrate all their firing power on one spot in order to open a gap through which Uys and his men could flee. Most of the people at the back were able to escape, but Uys, who was in front, was seriously wounded. When he fell from his horse, he commanded his men to flee. His son, Dirkie, however, refused to leave his father and was killed next to him. (Ask your teacher to tell you the story of Dirkie Uys!) Potgieter’s commando was afterwards called the Fleeing Commando. He then left Natal and never returned.

d) Answer the following questions on the Battle of Italeni:

Reconstruct the sketch of The Battle of Italeni by means of a model or drawing.


Explain with the aid of a comic strip how you, as a Zulu commander, would have set up an even better ambush.

Most Voortrekker laagers were moved to the Little Tugela River where they were better protected by a donga (of clay) and a turf wall. That is why this camp is sometimes referred to as the Sooilaer (turf camp). Some Trekkers even started sowing wheat and gardening, as food was very short. Therefore it was sometimes called the Saailaer (sowing camp). Meanwhile, the Zulu attacked three more times and looted more than 10 000 cattle.

Winter was very cold, wood was scarce and grazing for the cattle was inadequate. To top it all, a fire and diseases also broke out in the camps. Maritz died and Andries Pretorius, a well-known military man, was summoned from the Cape Colony. He immediately came with 500 men.

On 26 November 1838 Pretorius was chosen as chief commandant. He immediately started preparations to lead an attack on the Zulus, instead of being attacked again. He wanted to make use of a strengthened wagon laager with horsemen. The women, children and some men remained at the Sooilaer.


LEARNING OUTCOME 3: INTERPRETING HISTORY – The learner will be able to interpret aspects of history
3.1 Be aware of more than one view of the past
3.2 Distinguish between fact and opinion
3.3 Reconstruct the past


Activity 1

(a) written

  • Owen
  • 6 February 1838
  • Dingane decided to murder the Trekkers

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, History grade 7. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11023/1.1
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